How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

242 terms

A&P Questions

STUDY
PLAY
location
what is the major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid?
pancreas (digestive)
which of the following is not considered an organ of the immune system?
perforin
which does NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site?
opsonization (adding molecule onto antigen)
which action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis?
91.5%
what percentage of blood plasma is water?
proerythroblasts
during hemopoeisis, some of the myeloid stem cells (derive from myeloid precursor [marrow]) will eventually develop into
basophil
which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions
mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive
which of the following situations could result in maternal antibodies attacking fetal blood cells during second pregnancy?
B
which blood type is a person if their plasma contains only anti-A agglutinin?
interlobar arteries >arcuate arteries >glomerular capillaries >arcuate veins
which is the correct order of blood flow through the kidneys?
glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
which is the correct order of filtrate flow?
glomerular capsule
this is the structure of teh nephron that filters the blood
increase, sodium
increased secretion of aldosterone would result in a________ of blood_______?
2L/day
what is the normal volume of urine produced in humans?
atrial natriuretic peptide
hormone secreted by the heart when there is an increase in blood flow which increases sodium excretion
ADH
consumption of salty food will cause an increase in this hormone because water needs to be retained to dilute it.
penis
this is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous tissue
testosterone
this hormone promotes the final step of spermatogenesis, a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes
LH (anterior pituitary)
this hormone triggers ovulation
progesterone
this is secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation, a steroid hormone produced in the ovary
menarche
first menses
a diploid fertilized ovum
zygote
inhibin
this hormone inhibits the release of FSH from the pituitary gland
dihydrotestosterone
in male embyos, this hormone is responsible for the development of the urethra, prostate and external genitals
anterior pituitary gland
the pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise the
calcitonin
which hormone opposes the action of the parathyroid hormone?
thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
synthesis of calcitonin
which does not describe a step in the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4?
iodide trapping, oxidation of iodide, coupling of T1 and T2, iodination of tyrosine
all involved in the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4
myxedema (disorder of the skin)
hypthyroidism during adulthood can produce which of the following disorders?
arachidonic acid
all prostaglandins are derived from a 20- carbon precursor molecule called
adipose tissue
leptin is a hormone produced by the
parathyroid hormone
released from the parathyroid gland
insulin
released from the pancreas
glucagon
released from the pancreas
ADH
released from the posterior pituitary gland
parathyroid hormone, insulin, glucagon and ADH
hormones that are secreted from an endocrine gland in response to a chemical change in the blood
follicle- stimulating hormone
Released from the anterior pituitary gland to target the ovaries & testes.
parathyroid hormone
which hormone commonly increases in plasma of older individuals due to an inadequate dietary intake of calcium?
pericardium
the membrane that surrounds and protects the heart
pericardial fluid
this is used to reduce the friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart
anterior int(er)ventricular sulcus (between)
this groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles
into arteries
contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly
through atrioventricular valves (AV)
contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly
right atrium and right ventricle (deoxygenated)
what chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?
cardiac output
the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute
vagus nerve
stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate
medulla oblongata
this part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate
kidney
renin is synthesized by the
0 mg/mL
what concentration of glucose passes through the urethra of a normal individual if their blood glucose is 100 mg/mL?
aorta
a vessel that acts as a pressure reservoir is the
tunica interna
which layer of a blood vessel produces valves?
tunica media
which layer of the artery wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?
slow the entry of blood into the capillary bed, decrease the cross-sectional area available for blood flow, raise the systemic blood pressure
constriction of the precapillary sphincter will
alveoli
type II cella are found in the___ of the lung
bronchioles
contraction of smooth muscle is most likely to narrow the airway by constricting the
elastic
which tissue in the lung is the MOST important for the process of passive exhalation?
air, blood, lungs
in a normal healthy individual, the pleural cavities do NOT contain
secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin
which hormones are synthesized by enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract?
proenzymes
zygomen granules in the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are
alcohol
which of the following substances is MOST easily absorbed by the stomach?
a. Are normally impermeable to water in the absence of vasopressin
b. May have either a simple cuboidal or a simple columnar epithelium
d. Drain into the papillary ducts
collecting ducts
erythropoeitin
which hormone produced by the kidney aids in RBC formation
glomerular capillaries
glomerular filtrate originates in the
Urinary bladder lumen lined with transitional epithelium
urinary passages
conducting arteries
the blood vessels that receive blood directly from the ventricles of the heart are
capillary
which blood vessel type is the one used predominantly for gas and nutrient exchange with the body tissues?
blood flow
the volume of blood flowing in any tissue for a given time period is
veins and venules
at any given time which vessels have the largest volume of blood?
greater
fetal hemoglobin has a (an)_____ affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin
Is the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in one breath, Includes the volume of air in the respiratory space and the volume of air in the conducting space
tidal volume
pharynx
the tonsils are located in the
pulmonary arteries
deoxygenated blood is brought to the lungs by the
submucosa
this layer of the GI tract is composed of alveolar CT that binds the mucosa to muscularis externa
jejunum, villi and glands
part of the small intestine
Submucosal location in GI tract
Involuntary nervous system control of glands
Meissner's submucosal plexus
MALT, illeum
peyer's patches are an example of______ found in the _______.
Capillaries,
Bowman's capsule
renal corpuscles contain
Blood pressure regulation,
Renin synthesis
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is involved in _____.
Ureters drain urine from bladder to exterior of the body
INCORRECT statement about the urinary system.
Ca2+ resorption in the distal convoluted tubule
In the presence of PTH the nephron increases
Oxygenated, systemic circulation
The aorta sends ____ blood to the ______.
a. The artery has a thicker wall than the vein.*
b. The vein has less elastic tissue than the artery.*
c. The lumen of the artery is smaller than the lumen of the vein.*
ALL the correct statements comparing blood vessels that travel next to each other in the body
Discontinuous capillary
The wall of a liver sinusoid is MOST similar in structure to a _________.
veins
Valves are found mainly in which type of blood vessel?
a. Surrounds or suspends some organs of the digestive tract
b. Has a layer of simple squamous epithelium
c. Secretes peritoneal fluid
Peritoneum
muscularis externa
Peristalsis depends most on which layer of the GI tract?
Pressure inside the thoracic cavity must be higher than atmospheric pressure.
External intercostal muscles must relax.
Which of the following events are required for normal exhalation?
-exchange of gases between the blood and tissues
-generation of ATP and pyruvate from glucose
-combustion of fuels to CO2 and H2O to generate ATP
External respiration is NOT the _____.
External respiration
Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
-Upper folds vibrate and produce sound
-Produces sound when air is forced past the vibrating vestibular cords
-Thyrohyoid membrane lies below the vocal folds.
FALSE statements about the larynx.
pharynx
Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?
Not present on epithelial cells of the small intestine*
FALSE statements about microvilli
Concentrates bile
TRUE statement about the gall bladder.
The same cells synthesize pepsinogen and intrinsic factor.
INCORRECT statement about the stomach.
Hepatic sinusoids
Blood from the hepatic portal vein next enters the _____.
Proximal convoluted tubule
Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?
More water is resorbed when ADH is present.
CORRECT statement about the kidney.
glucagon
which is a hormone of the islets of langerhans?
islets of langerhans
cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ
islets of langerhans
clusters of endocrine cells that secrete two hormones directly into the circulatory system. alpha cells, which secrete the peptide hormone GLUCAGONS, and beta cells, which secrete the hormone INSULIN.
THYROXIN
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
epinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
thyroid gland
which of the following organs is and ENDOCRINE gland or contains and endocrine gland?
endocrine gland
any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
exocrine gland
a gland that secretes externally through a duct
ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine
hormones that increase their concentrations in blood during stress
calcitonin
hormone that lowers blood calcium
Growth Hormone
hormone thats acts on the liver causing it to release IGF's
IGF's
from liver stimulation, by HGH promote tissue repair and bone growth, insiulin like growth factors
up- regulation
when a hormone is present in low levels, the number of target cell receptors may increase. this i called
oxytocin
the hormone responsible for MILK EJECTION
ADH
lack of which hormone can result in diabetes insipidus
kidney
ADH normally increases retention of water by the
anterior pituitary
prolactin is synthesized by the which gland?
prolactin
gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary.
in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and MILK PRODUCTION after parturition
CRH, TRH
which hormones will travel in the hypothalmohypophyseal portal vein?
CRH
corticotropin releasing hormones which is released by the hypothalamus,
is released in response to decreased concentrations of adrenal cortical hormones
TRH
hormone RELEASED by the Hypothalamus that controls the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary (TSH)
calcitonin
which hormone INHIBITS bone breakdown
diabetes insipidus
a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys)
diabetes mellitus
condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the level of blood glucose
producing gametes with one of each type of chromosome
meiosis is the process of
leydig cells, spermatagonia
which cells of the testis are 2n?
leydig cells
A cell that produces testosterone and other androgens and is located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
spermatagonia
the primary spermatocytes develop from the division of these cells
sertoli cells
the cells in the testis responsible for the NOURISHING cells of the sperm-forming lineage are the
down regulation
when a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target call receptors decrease
paracrines
these hormones act on neighboring cells with out entering the blood stream
steroids
lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol
scrotum
the structure that protects and regulates the temperature of the testes
seminiferous tubules
the structure that is the site of SPERM PRODUCTION
1-3
how many seminiferous tubules are found in the lobules?
spermatogenic cells
these cells may eventually become spermatozoa
leydig cells
these cells secrete testosterone
lutenizing hormone (LH)
this STIMULATES the target cells to secrete testosterone
rete testis
the straight tubules in the testes lead into the
rete testis
network of tubules carrying sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vasa efferentia
sperm maturation
the function of the epididymis
secondary oocytes, estrogen and progesterone
what is produced by the ovaries?
suspensory ligament
this attaches the ovaries and the uterus to the pelvic wall
uterine tube
the site of fertilization
cervix
the part of the uterus that opens into the vagina
mons pubis
anterior to the vagina and urethral openings is the
increase the active resorption of Na+ with H2O following passively
aldosterone acts on the kidney to
hyperosmolarity of extracellular fluids
ADH is released in response to
corpus luteum
progesterone is SECRETED by the
requirements for fertilizing a secondary oocyte
only a single sperm may penetrate the corona radiata and the zona pellucia, capacitation, acrosomal reaction
zona pellucida
A thick, transpartent coating rich in glycoproteins that surrounds an oocyte.
corpus luteum
yellow endocrine tissue that forms in a ruptured Graafian follicle following the release of an ovum
acrosomal reaction
The discharge of a sperm's acrosome when the sperm approaches an egg.
functions of oxytocin
contraction of a uterine smooth muscle, expulsion of the placenta, stimulation of milk ejection, preventing hemorrhage after birth of baby
edometrium
inner layer of the uterus
cell bodies of neurons synthesizing vasopressin
the supraoptic nucleus contains the
supraoptic nucleus
one of two areas of the hypothalamus that controls secretion of vasopressin
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, FSH
in the preovulatory period, GnRH released from the___ stimulates the _____ to release mainly _____.
sperm being released from their binding sertoli cells
spermiation is the process of
ABP
secreted by sertoli cells, binds testosterone, secretion stimulated by FSH, found in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules
converts angotensis to angiotensin I
renin
renin
enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
T3/T4
high blood levels of which hormone will raise the body temperature
estrogen
the PROLIFERATIVE phase the menstrual cycle is characterized by high blood levels of
zona fasciculata, cortisol
ACTH acts on cells of the ____ to stimulate the secretion of ___.
zona fasciculata
(Adrenal Cortex Layers) middle-secretes glucocoticoids, primary one is cortisol
corpus luteum
the next stage of development of the graafian follicle is the
by an intracellular receptor
how do estrogen and testosterone exert their effects on their target organs?
insulin and glucagon
two hormones from the islets of langerhans that have opposite effects on the levels of glucose in blood
growth hormone
which increases the growth in length of the humerus and femur
mediastinum
the anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and form the first rib to the diaphragm
pericardium
the membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is called the
pericaridal fluid
this is used to reduce friction between the layers of the membranes surrounding the heart
epicardium
this layer of the heart wall consists of mesothelium and CT
myocardium
which layer of the heart consists of cardiac muscle tissue?
auricle
this pouch like structure increases the total filling capacity of the atrium
coronary sulcus
this groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles
pectinate muscles
these muscular ridges are found on the anterior wall of the atrium wall of the right atrium and extends into the auricles.
tricuspid valve
through which structure does the blood pass from the right atrium to the left ventricle
dense CT
what type of tissue comprises the valves of the heart
aortic semilunar valve
blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which structure?
ductus arteriosus
in fetus this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta
into arteries
contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly
through AV valves
contraction of the atria of the heart leads blood moving directly
pulmonary semilunar valve
which valve below prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle
aortic stenosis
which of the following is a disorder in which the aortic semilunar valve is narrowed?
right atrium and right ventricle
what of the following chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?
coronary artery
which of the following blood vessels is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?
gap junctions
cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by
cardiac muscle
which of the following types of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?
cardiac conduction system
this is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart
SA node, AV node, bundle of His, purkinje fibers
the sequence of structures that cardiac action potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart
a longer
in comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart are depolarized for a____ period of time
cardiac output
the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called
systole
this term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when CONTRACTION of a chamber occurs and pressure within the chamber rises
ventricular systole
during which periods does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries
semilunar valves closing
the second sound (dupp) closely follows which of the events listed below
sinoatrial node
this structure in the heart initiates action potentials thats stimulate contraction of the heart at constant rate of about 100 beats per minute.
vagus nerve
stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate
INCREASED POTASSIUM levels in plasma
which leads to a decreased heart rate?
medulla oblongata
this part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that REGULATES heart rate
T wave
which wave in an electrocardiogram represents repolarization of the ventricles?
P wave
which of the following ECG waves represents atrial depolarization?
left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk
Cardiac Output is the volume of blood ejected from the_____ ventricle into the____ each minute.
cardiac reserve
the DIFFERENCE between a persons MAX cardiac output and RESTING cardiac output is called the
allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium
the function of foramen ovale during fetal life.
ventricular repolarization occurs
isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which
left ventricle
which of the following chambers of the heart is surrounded by the thickest layer or myocardium?
auscultation
the process of listening to heart sounds using the stethoscope is referred to as
valves
heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the_____ of the heart
a higher resting cardiac output
in comparison to a sedentary individual, a well trained athlete will usually have a higher cardiac reserve, higher stroke volume, hypertrophy of the heart, resting bradycardia BUT not
vagus
during heart transplants, the_____ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant
cardiomyplasty
a corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patients own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart
ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine
hormones that increase their concentrations in blood during stress.
a. Submucosal location in GI tract
b. Involuntary nervous system control of glands
The following is true for Meissner's submucosal plexus
a. The artery has a thicker wall than the vein.
b. The vein has less elastic tissue than the artery.
c. The lumen of the artery is smaller than the lumen of the vein.
correct statements comparing blood vessels that travel next to each other in the body (e.g. the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein or the femoral artery and femoral vein)
Muscularis externa
Peristalsis depends most on which layer of the GI tract?
Fibrinogen
The following plasma protein plays a role in blood clotting
Hemopoiesis
The process by which the formed elements of the blood develop is
Erythropoietin
The following hormones stimulate proliferation of RBC in red bone marrow
Platelet
The following blood cell is involved in reducing blood loss from a damaged blood vessel
Thrombopoietin
The following hormone stimulates the development of megakaryoblasts
anti-A and anti-B
Which of the following antibodies would you find in the plasma of a person with type O blood
Damaged tissues release clotting factors-Ca2+, several inactive enzymes & various molecules associated with platelets.
Why does damaged endothelium present an increased risk of blood clotting
aplastic anemia
Destruction of red bone marrow due to radiation results in
1. vascular spasm- smooth muscle in arterial wall contract.
2. platelet plug formation- platelets stick to the part of the damaged BV become activated and acumulated in large numbers.
3. Blood clotting
3 mechanisms used to reduce blood loss from a damaged blood vessel
heme
Stercobilin, a brown pigment that gives feces its characteristic color, and urobilin, a yellow pigment that gives urine its color, are both breakdown products of which of the following components of blood.
Complement-induced hemolysis of the transfused blood cells
If a type A blood is infused into a patient with type O blood, which of the following adverse reactions would you expect to observe in a patient
AB negative
Which of the following blood types is a person whose blood cells were agglutinated by both anti-A and anti-B serum, but not anti-Rh serum
Lymph system lacks arteries and begins w/ blind ended lymph capillaries. RETURN ONLY SYSTEM.
How are lymphatic capillaries are one-way only vessels
Thoracic duct
The left subclavian vein receives lymph from
Lymphatic , Immune and Cardiovascular systems
The skeletal muscle and the respiratory pumps are used in
Thymus
Which organ produces a hormone that promotes maturation of T cells
Removes worn out blood cells
Which of the following is a function of the spleen
Interferons
Which antimicrobial substances reduce viral replication (in uninfected cells)
Natural Killer (NK) cells
Which cells kill infected body cells and tumor cells
Complement-induced hemolysis of transfused blood cells
If a type A blood is infused into a patient with type O blood, which of the following adverse reactions would you expect to observe in a patient
AB negative
Which of the following blood types is a person who blood cells were agglutinated by both anti-A and anti-B serum, but not by anti-Rh serum?
Immunocompetent
When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are described as being
Classical and Alternative complement systems
Which leads to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and lysis of microbes
Acute anaphylactic shock
An acute allergic response can lead to
Reactivity
The ability of an antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it has provoked is called
Naturally acquired active immunity
Which type of adaptive immunity will result from intravenous injection of immunoglobins
Transfer of IgG from mother to fetus
Natural passive immunity is associated with
Mucus production
Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation