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The regulation of movement of solutes between internal fluids and the external environment


What process gets rid of nitrogenous metabolites and other waste products?


What is the solute concentration of a solution called? Determines the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane


Net flow of water is from the ________ to the ______ solution

Net flow of water is from the hypoosmotic to the hyperosmotic solution

Seen in the kidney, when the movement of water is equal in both direction is called


Hypo= (less/more)


Side A is hyperosmotic to side B, which side has more dissolved solutes?

Side A

A human cannot tolerate being in the ocean for 10 days because most animals are _______ and cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity


______, marine invertebrates that are isoosmotic with their enviornment such as the lamprey, (do/do not) regulate their osmolarity

Osoconformer; DO NOT; uses no energy

Some marine osoconformers such as sharks try to regulate minimal solutes like ____, ___, ___

SO4-, Ca2+, Mg2+; uses very little energy

All freshwater and terrestrial animals are ______ which expend energy to control water uptake and loss


Two types of osmoregulators


What are animals called that can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity?


Marine bondy fishes are (hypoosmotic/hyperosmotic) to sea water

hypoosmotic (concentration of solutes in the sea is higher than the solutes in the cells of the fish)

Marine Fish take in food that (hypoosmotic/hyperosmotic) to itself; then the salty water diffuses out of the ____

the food is hyperosmotic (more solutes) than the fish's own body. Salts diffuse out of gills

Freshwater animals take in water by osmosis; freshwater is (hypoosmotic/hyperosmotic) to the fish


Freshwater fish loose salts by ____ and maintain water balance by excrete large amounts of dilute ____

diffusion; urine

Most aquatic animals including the bony fishes excrete what kind of nitrogenous waste? (is it toxic, how much water does it require, how much energy)

A Lot of water
Little energy

Mammals, amphibians, sharks excrete what kind of nitrogenous waste? (is it toxic, how much water does it require, how much energy)

less toxic
less water
more energy

Many reptiles, including birds, insects, land snails excrete what kind of nitrogenous waste? (is it toxic, how much water does it require, how much energy)

Least Toxic
Little water
Most energy

What combination do sea turtles excrete?

Mostly ammonia and a bit of urea

the kind of waste excrete depends on the animals evolutionary history and habitat

land vs sea turtles
embryos (need to conserve H2O, convert waste to uric acid and let it precipitate on inside of cell)

Which has more nitrogenous waste? An endotherm or ectotherm


Which has more nitrogenous waste? a diet high in protein or a diet high in fat

high protein

4 stages of excretory process

Filtration - pressure filtering
Re absorption - reclaiming valuable solutes
Secretion - adding toxins and other solutes to the filtrate
Excretion- removing the filtrate from the system

A network of dead end tubules connected to external openings


Inside in the _____ are tubes of cilia and a nucleus

flame bulb

Each segment of an earthworm has a pair of open-ended


worms pump waste in the ______


What removes nitrogenous wastes from hemolymph and function in osmoregulation

malpighian tubules

What type of organism reabsorbs most of the water and excrete a relatively dry waste? What structure do they use?


Malpighian tubules

In Humans, where is the principal site of water balance and salt regulation?


Liquid leaves the kidney via the


What is the basic filter unit of the kidney

the nephron

The renal collecting duct is located in the

medulla and travels down to pelvis

Organisms which water conservation is essential will have all _______ nephrons to conserve H2O

juxtamedullary nephrons (they extend far down into the medulla)

The majority of most nephrons are ____, existing only on the renal cortex

cortical nephrons

Filtration occurs when blood pressure forces fluid from the blood in the ______ into the lumen of the ________

glomererulus; bowmans capsule

The filtrate contains all of the following except
Salts, Amino Acids, Proteins and cells, Vitamins, Nitrogenous Wastes

NEVER contains proteins or cells (bicarbonate and potassium ions are pulled back in)

The Pathway of the Filtrate: 3 regions

1. the proximal tubules
2. The loop of Henle
3. the distal tubule

Elimination of waste is due to

blood pressure

Fluid from several nephrons flows into a _______, which lead to the renal______, which is drained by the

Fluid from several nephrons flows into a collecting duct, which lead to the renal pelvis, which is drained by the ureter

What are the capillaries that serve the loop of henle

vasa recta

What two structures function as the counter current system

Vasa Recta and the Loop of Henle

The mammalian kidney conserves water by producing ______ which is much (less/more) concentrated than body fluids

Urine; more concentrated than body fluids

The filtrate volume begins to decrease and reabsorption of water, ions, and nutrients takes place where

the proximal tubule

The filtrate becomes increasingly concentrated in the

descending limb of the loop of henle

The filtrate becomes dilute; Salt, but not water, is able to diffuse from the tubule into the interstitial fluid in the

ascending limb of the loop of henle

What regulates the K+ and NaCl concentrations of body fluids

Distal Tubule

Would you expect the volume of filtrate to be more or less in the distal tubule compared to the proximal tubule ?

MUCH less volume in the distal tubule (because body reabsorbed a lot of water by this point)

When you exercise the amount of urine you produce goes (up/down) because the collecting duct is reabsorbing water and salt


Urine is (Hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic) to body fluids


What controls the collecting duct


Deep in the medulla, the osmolarity is very (high/low) and salt diffuses easily

high (see diagram pg 11)

What increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts in the kidney?

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) - it increases awuaporins and cells are more permeable to water and cells are sucked back in=less urine

An increase in blood _______ triggers the release of ADH, which prevents loss of water


ADH is made where and stored where

made in the hypothalamus
stored in the posterior pituitary

What reduced blood osmolarity to a set point (see diagram on pg 12)

Drinking (thirst)

A longer loop of henle means

extreme water conservation ( an animal in a desert will have a long loop of henle and an animal in freshwater will have a short loop)

Birds, which short loops of henle, conserve water by

excreting uric acid instead of urea

Reptiles only have cortical nephrons but also excrete nitrogenous waste as

uric acid

Freshwater Fishes conserve their salt in _____ and excrete large volumes of ___

Distal tubules, dilute urine

Amphibians and _____ have similar kidneys. Amphibians conserve water on land by reaborbing water from the ______

freshwater fish; urinary bladder

Marine Bony fishes are (hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic) compared with their enviornment and exrete (alot/little) urine


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