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17 terms

AP Psych - Cognition

AP Psychology Barron's book vocabulary for Chapter 7: Cognition.
STUDY
PLAY
Iconic memory
A type of sensory memory that holds a split-second perfect photograph of a scene.
Echoic memory
A type of sensory memory that holds a split-second perfect memory for sounds.
Selective attention
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus; determines which sensory messages get encoded into working memory.
Primacy effect
Predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list.
Recency effect
Predicts that we are more likely to recall items at the end of a list.
Semantic network theory
States that our brain might form new memories by connecting their meaning and context with meanings already in memory.
State-dependent memory
Refers to the phenomenon of recalling events encoded while in particular states of consciousness.
Constructed memory
A memory that reports false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occurred.
Phonemes
The smallest units of sound used in a language.
Syntax
The grammar of a language.
One-word (holophrastic) stage
The stage in language acquisition during which babies speak in single words (holophrases); occurs around the first birthday.
Two-word (telegraphic speech) stage
The stage in language acquisition during which children combine the words they can say into simple commands; occurs at around 18 months of age.
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
Theory that the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our understanding.
Images
A type of thought which consists of the mental pictures we create in our minds of the outside world; can be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or even an image of taste.
Framing
Refers to the way a problem is presented.
Convergent thinking
Thinking pointed toward one solution.
Divergent thinking
Thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question; closely associated with creativity.