Terms in this set (41)
Explain the difference between the barter system and a money economy.
Barter system - The system of trade that involves exchanging goods for other goods and services.
Money economy - coin/ paper script that serves as the medium of exchange for goods and services. (gold, silver, salt or other precious items)
Belief in and worship of one god. Example: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.
Define polytheistic. Which groups have we studied fall into that category?
Belief in and worship of many gods.
Examples: Persia, Sumer, Egypt, Phoenicians, Hittites, Babylonians, Lydian's, Assyrians etc...
Explain the similarity between the Code of Hammurabi & the Ten Commandments.
The Ten Commandments & Hammurabi's Code both were written law codes that set guidelines for how people should conduct themselves.
What does Mesopotamia mean?
The land between the rivers.
Where did the Phoenicians settle?
SW Asia along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
They were sea traders throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea.
An independent community consisting of a city and the surrounding land it controlled.
The scattering and relocation of many Israelites by Middle Eastern groups is referred to as the diaspora. Starting with the Assyrians the Hebrews were scattered over the middle east and later into what is now Europe.
What are pictograms? Who created pictograms? Are the cave paintings found in France pictograms?
Was the first form of writing - pre-dates cuneiform. Writing through pictures. The cave painting found in France were created by early man, or Paleolithic man.
Explain who Abraham and Moses are, and why they are important.
Abraham is considered one of the main founders of Judaism. He made the covenant with God and became the leader of the Hebrews.
Moses was an important prophet. He led the Israelites from slavery in Egypt in the event known as Exodus. He received the 10 Commandments from God on Mt. Sinai.
The 10 Commandments are one of the first written law codes.
What is cuneiform? Which civilization developed this?
Early writing of the Sumerians. They used a sharpened reed and pressed symbols into a wet clay tablet. These tablets were dried in the sun. These tablets were used to record agriculture, and tax information. They were used to record laws and history.
What are hieroglyphics? Which civilization developed this? Find a picture.
Hieroglyphics was one of the written languages of the Egyptian civilization. It was a series of ideograms and pictograms.
What is the purpose of a ziggurat? A pyramid? Which civilization used each of these? Where is Giza located, why important?
A ziggurat was a temple at the center of a Sumerian city-state in Mesopotamia
A pyramid was a tomb for the Egyptian God-Kings. Giza is in Egypt, near Cairo. It is the location of the Great Pyramid.
How could a person become a slave in the ancient middle east?
Conquest, crime, debt.
What are the accomplishments of the Paleolithic Era?
Bow & Arrow,
Control of fire
Flint axes, spears
Hunting in groups
Migrating out of Africa
Which Middle Eastern kingdom was located in Asia Minor, had large gold deposits, and started coining money to use in trade?
The Lydian's, located in Asia Minor or modern day Turkey.
Where did the Hebrews settle?
Between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley in SW Asia.
Who was the Israelite king that established a capital in Jerusalem?
Which Old Kingdom pharaoh constructed the Great Pyramid at Giza?
What is a theocracy?
A form of government in which the leader is regarded as the political, religious and military leader. Usually a King or Emperor and most of the early civilizations we have studied were considered theocracies.
What is Stonehenge? Why is this important?
An archaeological site that provides evidence of Neolithic and Bronze Age inhabitants in England.
Why is the Fertile Crescent considered a "Cradle of Civilization"?
The first city-state developed in that area
What are the achievements of the Sumerian civilization?
12 month calendar
What are the achievements of the Phoenicians?
22 character alphabet
Bill of sale & contracts
Sail all over the Mediterranean Sea.
Sea and river traders
Carthage was an important colony in North Africa
Name the four ancient river valleys. Identify where each of them is located.
Indus River Valley - India
Huang He - China
Tigris & Euphrates River valley - Fertile Crescent, SW Asia, Mesopotamia
Nile River Valley - Africa, Egypt
Which Middle-Eastern group was very cruel to those they conquered, and where were they located?
The Assyrians, They had a large empire from the Persian Gulf, through the Fertile Crescent, all the way to Egypt.
What are the accomplishments of the Hittites?
Two man chariots
What is the Rosetta Stone?
It is a carving in a stone found in Egypt that allowed historians to decipher the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. It had three different versions of the same story (3 languages), one of them was Greek, one was demotic, and one was Egyptian hieroglyphs. Historians were able to use the Greek to decipher the hieroglyphs.
What is a dynasty?
A form of government in which the right to rule is passed from one generation to the next. The Pharaohs of ancient Egypt ruled in dynasties as well as the Chinese that we will study about very soon.
What are the accomplishments of the Persians?
Largest empire in the ancient world until Alexander the Great. Stretched from SW Asia to the Indus River Valley
Tolerant of the people's culture that they conquered.
What is Zoroastrianism?
Religion practiced by the Persians, polytheistic, prophet was Zoroaster, believed in the struggle between good and evil in the universe.
What is a covenant?
A sacred promise. Abraham made a covenant with God.
What is the holy book of Judaism?
Which civilization developed a 12 month calendar based on the cycles of the moon? Where were they located?
The Sumerians, Mesopotamia
Where are the ancient cities of Aleppo & Jericho located? What is important about these cities?
They were/are located in SW Asia, in what was known as the Fertile Crescent.
Aleppo is in modern day Syria, and Jericho is located in Israel.
Which major accomplishment resulted in the building of cities with permanent housing?
Neolithic Revolution or Agricultural Revolution. People began to farm and settle in one place, towns and cities began to grow.
Why did civilizations develop writing?
To record history, laws, tax records, trade records, government records
Which hominid groups developed the loom and advanced waving skills?
Homo sapien sapien, (Paleolithic Man - US!)
Who created the cave art found in France?
Paleolithic Man (Homo sapien sapien)
Define cultural diffusion. How did it occur in the ancient world?
Cultural diffusion is the spread of culture, ideas, religion etc... through trade and conquest in the ancient world.
Why was the Fertile Crescent home to so many different civilizations?
Because it had good fertile soil and plenty of water and other important resources for a civilization. It was difficult to defend however, because it was so flat.