216 terms

Sociology Final

test questions
A child learns to act like adults, she observes and internalizes her parents' values and attitudes into her personality. Lawrence Kohlberg refers to this behavior as:
none of the above
Socialization refers to
the process of transmitting cultural values to young members
For charles H. Cooley, the process wherby our self image develops from the ways others treat us is called the ________ process
looking-glass self
The cases of children who were raised in extreme isolation demonstrate that
normal human development requires continuing human interaction
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development argues that
virtually all children go through the same sequence of mental development
Which of the following statements about the nature/nurture debate would Alex Thio see as the most accurate?
While nature sets limits, socialization plays a very large role in determining who we are
John is playing with his toys and he is pretending to be a fireman like his father. According to Jean Piaget, by seeing himself from his father's point of view, John is
none of the above
For humans to be socialized ,it is imperative that they have:
regular social interaction with adults
Which of the following describes behavior associated with Jan Piaget's sensorimotor stage?
when a child learns with his senses and body to interact with the environment
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, at the first level of moral development, young adults have a preconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of
a right and wrong consequence
Taylor is a young girl whose parents surrounded her with books, challenging discussions, and ideas. based on our understanding of socialization, Taylor is probably
ahead of other children in the areas she had been trained in
According to George Herbert Mead, when children learn to internalize the values of society as a whole in the game stage, they take on the role of the
generalized other
Charles H. Cooley viewed society as a group of individuals helping each other to develop their personality. this means that
the core of the self is in the concept of the self image that develops from the way others see us
Natasha recieves good grades, she learns a lot and she is liked by her professors, parents, and friends. she is outgoing and also participates in several extra curricular activities that the school develops for the betterment of the students. charles H. cooley would suggest that natasha
has a good self image
in the sixth grade of the levels of development of the self, the "I" represents?
the spontaneous, creative, and impulsive personality we can have
social exchanges are usually governed by
the norm of reciprocity
which of the following statements about socialization are true EXCEPT?
it is difficult to change an adult's personality becasue it has been formed in childhood
competition in the global market has helped U.S. companies
become more efficient and productive
an ethnomethodologist would likely study
the conversations among roommates in a college dormatory
many people use the internet as a key tool of communication. which of the following is a disadvantage of electronic communication?
all of the above
Which of the following forms of social interaction are more likely to unsettle the social structure?
everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world. the pioneering sociologist who developed microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding it was:
Erving Goffman
select below that one statement that is NOT a reason for studying social interaction in everyday life:
examining social interaction in everyday life allows sociologists to see how relatively unimportant language is in creating social reality
the use of internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites, such as MySpace and Facebook:
adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life
at the third level of moral development, young adults have a postconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of
conflicting norms
Humor makes us laugh because almost all jokes contain
an incongruity between two realities
the analysis of how people define the world in which they live is called
which of the following would NOT be classified as civil inattention?
working on a group project in your sociology class
which of the following statements about conflict is the most true?
conflict can often help a social structure by unifing members
the supportive social interaction's function that provides hidden, underlying meanings is absolutely crucial for
ensuring social order
intelligence is either inherited or learned
anticipatory socialization is the process by which an individual learns to assume a role in the future
superego is Freud's term for the part of the personality that is moral; popularly known as conscience
Jean Piaget's described seven stages of cognitive development that each child goes through
to be a genius, you must be born one
preconventional morality is Kohlberg's term for the practice of judging actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms
humor is only fun and games
because they speak the same language, men and women can easily understand each other
Non verbal communication may involve proxemics, the use of space as a means of communication
to symbolic interactionists, people usually don't take supportive interactions at face value but pay more attention to the hidden meanings behind expressed words and actions
parents in ______ families try to cultivate a strng acceptance and security in tehir young children by indulging them, letting them have practically anything they want and letting them behave and misbehave in any way they want
Asian Americans
according to _______, children develop their self concept in three stages
George H Mead
________ morality was Kohlberg's term for the practice of judging actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms
Children of _________ parents are traditionally socialized through an extensive network of relatives
Native Americans
________ is an interaction in which two individuals follow mutually accepted rules, each trying to achieve the same goal before the other does
________ is an interaction in which two individuals disregard any rules, each trying to achieve his or her own goal by defeating the other
________ is the use of body movements as a means of communication; also called body language
Alex Thio affirms that by studying and appreciating social diversity in our society, we ultimately
develop a better understanding of ourselves
US sociology was reshaped during the 1960's by renewed awareness of
poverty and years of social unrest
critics of the feminist theory criticize the theory becasue it
overemphasizes the oppressiveness of patriarchy
a scientific theory is
always open to revision in the light of new evidence
according to symbolic interactionists
people respond to the interpretations of symbols and experiences
if you wanted to determine whether there is a gender difference in how often people think about sex, the best research method would be
the survey
by using each of the three major sociological perspectives, researchers can
bring more aspects of society into a sharper focus
Herbert Spencer's classic study of suicide makes the sociological point that
none of the above
sociologist Jane Johnson lived with Kickapoo indians and studied the tribal members' beliefs. This type of research is called
sociologists study human behavior through books, magazines, letters, songs, etc. this type of research is called
content analysis
which of the following statements is most clearly linked with herbert spencer's view of society?
the primary feature of society is its interactive parts that contribute to the function of the whole
the fourth step or level we have in the scientific method is
selecting a research design by choosing one or more research methods
tom was a sunday school teacher, he played on a softball team and at nights he studied a master degree in computers. however, his main commitment was to his job. this mans that softball, chirch activities and his master program were his
subordinate statuses
sam works overtime everyday in an important company as the head of the company, he therfore cannot spend as much time as he would like wih his children. he feels guilty but knows that if he does not work overtime he could loose his job. his situation is an example of
role conflict
lisa attended her best friends funeral wearing cut off jeans and a red tank top. when the service started lisa whistled and cheered. lisa's mode of dress and behavior at the funeral was a violation of society's
with time, norms and values have changed in our society and become law. the following are norms and values that have changed overtime and have become part of the law EXCEPT
we support saluting each other
which if the following is apart of the concept of society?
a collection of interacting persons who share culture and territory
the functionalist perspective explains cultural practices by looking at
the purpose of the practice serves for society as a while
symbolic interactionists tend to stress the importance of culture as
a guide and product of human creation
which of the following statements about hunting and gathering societies is false?
these societies domesticate animals to eat
the sapir-whorf hypothesis about language and culture suggests that
language shapes the ways in which people percieve the world
which of the following statements is the definition of social institution
the stable sets of widely shared beliefs, norms, and procedures that are organized to satisfy basic needs
sociology is the systematic, scientific study of human society
economic globalization is a closely knit community of all the world's societies
participant observation is a research method that involves only asking questions about opinions, beliefs, or behaviors
a micro view focuses on the immediate social situation in which people interact with one another
patriarchy is a system of domination in which women exercise power over women
primary group is a group whose members interact formally, relate to each other as players of particular roles, and expect to profit from each other
condoleezza rice's position as national security advisor in the bush administration is an ascribed status, and her status as an african american and a woman are achieved
according to alex thio, we feel role strain if we have to play two conflicting roles from the same status
according to alex thio, both functionalist and conflict perspectives provide a structural view of culture as largely capable of constraining us
according to the sapir-whorf hypothesis, our language makes us see the world in a certain way
statuses that are given to us based on what we do, rather than who we are are called
achieved status
social stratification is a profoundly important subject in sociology because
almost every aspect of our lives, from family size to how much money we need, is linked to ou status in society
which of the following statements about economic inequality in the US is true?
the poorest 20% in the US have 4.2% of the national income
a stratification system where there is little opportunity to accumulate wealth and where there is much social equality is called
egalitarian system
for feminists, gender inequality should be studied as part of the overall stratification system because
an analysis of a stratification system must include all of its members
sociologists are using the ____ method of identifying social class when they rely on a group of people from the community to rate or locate people in the class structure
joseph is automatically rated as a member of the middle class because he has a master's degree. this way of assigning people to social classes, based on year's of education and occupation is called the
objective method
according to the absolute definition of poverty in the united states, persons are poor when they
lack the income needed to sustain a minimum standard of living
due to job loss, divorce, disabilities and old age, studies suggest
a majority of americans will experience a brief period of poverty in their life
oscar lewis characterized people living in a culture of poverty as having all of the following attitudes EXCEPT
future oriented
the essence of global stratification is
inequality among nations
sociologists who follow the functionalists theory believe that social stratification is
universal and necessary, it serves societies
the lack of minimum food and shelter necessarily for maintaining life is called
absolute poverty
conflict theorists argue that social stratification
is a reflection of power, not necessity
according to karl marx, the difference between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is
the capitalists own the means of production and the workers do not
simon kuznets curve refers to the changing relationship between
economic development and social inequality
which of the following statements about race and ethnicity is true?
while a people's physical features do not change when they move to another country, their racial identification as blacks or whites may change
the term life chances refers to
opportunities of living a good, long, successful life
the cultural traits of an ethnic group
are culturally learned and passed from one generation to another
the famous golfer tiger woods, as an african american, has created the acronym cablinasian to describe his mixed racial background. mr woods is an example of all of the following EXCEPT
the definition of race is the same in all societies
one of several problems with the biological classification of races is that
most people are not physically distinctive
the sociological definition of race is based on
the perception of society in defining people as biologically different
which of the following is an example of prejudice
feeling negatively about people from a particular ethnic group
which of the following statements is NOT a false concept that the european settlers created a stereotype native americans
they were accused of living in tribes
one result of efforts by the US government to promote tribal economic development and self-sufficient has been
a national movement to make native americans feel proud of their cultural heritage
jim crow refers to
laws enacted after federal troops left the south that segregated blacks from whites
the largest component of the hispanic community in the united states are the
chinese and japanese americasn are educationally and occupationally
among the most succesful minorities
a degree of human prejudice can be explained by the tendency of human beings to place the blame for one's troubles on persons incapable of offering much resistance. this device is known as
robert merton called people who believe in equality and put their beliefs into action
unprejudice non discriminators
which of the following statements is NOT a reason why ethnic conflict is so fierce in many countries?
the victims of ethnic conflict acted in ways that brought out ethnic hostility
Karl Marx believed that capitalist sough tomaximize profit by exploiting workers
the class system is the least stratified, with minimal inequality
according to alex thio, it is harder today than 30 years ago for americans to move from a lower to a higher social class
as the world's leading democratic society, the united states has the most equal distribution of income
according to the conflict perspective, society creates and maintains poverty because benefits can be derived from it
according to the conflict perspective, racial and ethnic groups can contribute to social cohesion through assimilation, amalgamation or cultural pluralism
genocide is the wholesale killing of members of a specific racial or ethnic group
there are there distinct, pure races: white, asian and black
according to alex thio, despite the history of discrimination against them, asian americans are doing relatively well today
the feudal system is made up of several segregated groups whose positions are ascribed and fixed in society
when using the ______________ to determine class structure, sociologists find that some people generally rank themselves higher than what they really are
subjective method
sociologists apply the ________ because it identifies social class using occupation, income and education
objective method
which of the following is a social group?
a couple married less than one
which of the following is true?
a person measures his or her own worth by the standards of a reference group
which of the following is a social aggregate?
people waiting at terminal C for flight 181
the key to increased productivity in today's organizations is not, as frederick taylor assumed, in the formal organization, but in the
informal organization, the relationships of workers
what term do sociologists use to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a specific goal?
jane was in charge of a difficult project in a large office. she was a tough leader and kept pushing people to accomplish the project's goals. she would be an example of a
instrumental type of leader
which of the following situations most likely illustrates a primary relationship?
a family enjoying a picnic at the beach
how do japanese corporations differ from the bureaucratic model followed by the most business organizations in the west?
japanese corporations use a horizontal, collaborative model
which of the following is among the characteristic of a bureaucracy?
all of the above
which of the following best describes the relationship between group size, intamcy, and stability?
larger groups, such as fraternity, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group and relationships
the McDonaldization of society refers to
the increased of regulated and standardized of society due to automation
the privilege that allows leaders to deviate from their group's norms is called
idiosyncrasy credit
reference groups provide us with
a standard for judging one's attitudes and behaviors
people with a common characteristic, such as gender, occupation, or ethnicity, but not necessarily interacting with each other nor gather in one place are called a
social category
among the informal controls that we have in our society, the most effective to control deviance is
tom brown was the supervisor of a group of computer programmers. he provided support if needed, but generally allowed members of his group to work by themselves. his leadership style would be called
early attempts to explain deviant behavior in individuals were based on teh assumption that crime was committed mostly by people with certain physical traits. this view was called
biological determinism
the culture of rape suggests all of the following attitudes EXCEPT
women are treated as equals to men in all aspects of society
if you live in a high crime area, many of teh people you will befriend will be involved in criminal ativites, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. the conceptual context for the phenomenon is known as
differential association
according to edwin sutherland, how do criminals adopt behavior?
they learn criminal behavior from peers
with which of the following statements might a conflict theorist most closely agree?
deviants are labeled as such by powerful groups who use the label to control less powerful
the first day of college, you may have felt a little uncertain about how to behave. Durkheim and other sociologists would describe your feelings as
many characteristics of organizations appear orthodox but activities are all illegal, easy to evade law enforcements, they are called
organized crime
sociological research and theory suggest that
crime and deviance are rooted in the structure of society, including poverty, urban conditions, and generally, the crises faced by many young men
nowadays, corporate crime, or white collar crime, occurs at a higher rate than individual criminal acts. which of the following is an example of corporate crime?
all of the above
which two theories explaining deviance are classified as symbolic interactionist?
differential association and labeling theory
most evidence about the impact of capital punishment on murder rates supports the conclusion that capital punishment
is not effective deterrent to murder
a global analysis of deviance reveals social differences in a number of deviant activities. which of the following is NOT one of those differences?
prostitution is more of a problem i the united states than in other countries
which of the following is NOT a reason why college students become binge drinkers?
prior involvement in drug use
according to some experts, the current drug laws do more harm than good becasue they
lead to many crimes, including murder
the influence of organizations over our lives is entirely beneficial
government agencies have goals and rules that are stated explicity so that the work of their many members can be coordinated
according to amitai etzioni, in an organization, the function of the higher participants is to exercise power over the lower participants so that the latter will help the organization achieve its goals
studies show that western companies cannot successfully operate with the kind of bottom up decision making used in japan
human resource theory is a style that seems human resources issues as the responsibility of the whole organization, not just the human resources department
the pentagon is an example of a secondary group
having a network of friends and relatives can only bring joy and chase away lonliness, worries, and trouble, especially for widows
the peter principle is the observation that "in every hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence"
the addition of only one person to a group greatly increases the number of relationships
most homicides and rapes involve killing and raping acquaintances, friends, and family members, and only a few involve strangers
according to ____is the observation that "work expands to fill the time available for its completion"
parkin's law
______ is a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with one another
social aggregate
herb, joe, and judy routinely meet for breakfast to discuss how to solve problems and promote work in the office. their meetings are part of their company's
informal organization
individuals who commit _____ suicide are so strongly tied to their group that they effectively lose their selves and stand ready to do their group's bidding
in ___ the wrongdoer is punished in such a way as to be stigmatized, rejected, or ostracized in effect, banished from conventional society
disintegrative shaming
according to research, many of the sexual differences found in early childhood, such as boys' superiority in math, are due to:
socialization and culture
According to Naomi Wolf, the reason why women have not recognized their power as a majority of the voting population is:
a lack of unity regarding the role of women.
Which of the following represents the third wave of feminism?
Welcoming men to join women in addressing problems that affect both sexes.
It can be safely said that
nature accounts only for physical differences between men and women.
Cross-cultural studies concerning gender roles suggest that in other societies:
a division of labor between the sexes is found only in the U.S.
Which statement is TRUE about the role of women in politics today?
Women play an important role but they are far from achieving equality.
Anna wanted to enter a political race against a man. Which of the following statements by her opponent is most likely based on sexism?
Her emphasis on day care programs shows that she is a one-issue candidate.
The basic division of labor underlying traditional gender roles in the United States has been accompanied by many popular:
stereotypes of what women and men are supposed to be.
Which statement is TRUE about the role of women today in the work force?
Women are still far from economically equal to men.
Which of the following definitions of sexual harassment was accepted by the Supreme court in 1993?
Any conduct that makes the workplace environment hostile or abusive.
The physical process of aging is called:
Social factors that may contribute to the aging process include all of the following EXCEPT:
hereditary genes.
Some sociologists believe that the elderly should be considered a minority group because
like many other minority groups, they face prejudice and discrimination.
Which of the following kinds of intelligence continues to grow with age?
Crystalline intelligence.
Prejudice against older people is expressed in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
exclusion from politics
The elderly can be divided into three age groups. Aside from their younger age, what advantages do the "young old" have over the "oldest old"?
all of the above
The basic division of labor in society has been influenced by gender stereotypes about how men and women should behave and therefore what work they are best suited to do.
As a highly democratic society, the United States has proportionately more female political leaders than other nations.
According to the conflict perspective, interaction between the sexes often sustains or reinforces gender inequality.
The normal process of aging cannot be avoided but good health, proper diet, nutrition and exercise can make a significant difference in health for people of all ages.
_____ is the belief that women and men should be equal in various aspecs of their lives.
According to _____ perspective, it is functional for society to assign different tasks to men and women.
_____ refers to the physical process of aging.
_____ is an abnormal condition characterized by serious memory loss, confusion, and loss of the ability to reason
_____ also involves sexual abuses against women, of which the most common is sexual harassment.
According to Sigmund Freud, the ____ is the part of the personality that is rational.
_______ referred to supportive interactions as 'supportive interchanges' 'mutual dealings' or 'acts of identificatory sympathy.
erving Goffman
Hank tends to treat others as enemies. This type of interaction with others is called _____ interaction.
According to economist ____ 1.1 billion or nearly one-fifth of the people in the world is extremely poor, struggling to survive with an income of less than $1 a day
Jeffrey Sachs
The changing relationship between development and inequality is known as the work developed by economist:
Simon Kuznets
______is an unfavorable action against individuals that is taken because they are members of a certain category.
For African Americans, progress has not been significant in housing and economic conditions because of tradition and customs. We called it:
de facto segregation
In some of our social institutions, there is still the persistence of _____. The problem is that it is not recognized by everybody because of the long history that we have practiced it.
institutionalized discrimination
A manager who becomes the vice president of a company illustrates:
intragenerational mobility
_____ is a negative attitude toward members of a minority that is often based on negative stereotypes.
At the end of the nineteenth century, there was mob violence in the North against African Americans of the Deep South blaming them for their failures and lack of money. This is call:
jane is a nursing student who reads books about the life of nurses, and uses nursing expressions when talking to her friends. for her nurses are her:
reference group
according to ______ capitalist organizations are the capitalist' tool for exploiting the working class
Karl Marx
american sociologist in the 1930's, ______ agreed with Emile Durkheim theory concerning that deviance is an integral part of all healthy societies
Robert Merton
accordin to _______ deviance is learned through interactions with other people like friends
Edwin Sutherland
race, class and ______ play a significant role in deviance, particularly crime and delinquency
_____ ______ is the condition in which the same individual is given two conflicting status rankings
status inconsistency
judy begins a new job as a nurse. her supervisor expects her to be on time and take good care of her patients. these expectations make up her:
prescribed role
we will experience ____ ______ if we simultaneously play two conflicting roles from two different statuses
role conflict
______ are strong norms that specify normal behavior of people and constitute demands on our behavior, not just expectations
functionalist perspective emphasizes society's stability while the _____ ______ portrays society as always changing and always marked by conflict
conflict perspective
charles wright mills called the ability to see the impact of social forces on individuals the ____ _____
sociological imagination
in ____ _____ sociologists search for new knowledge in the data collected earlier by another researcher
secondary analysis
the perspective that views society as a set of interdependent parts working together to provide social order is known as the ______ perspective