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Terms in this set (20)
First Council of Nicaea
The first ecumenical council; a meeting of three hundred bishops that took place in 325, most importantly to provide a response to the Arian heresy and a common profession of faith.
A heresy of the fourth century that took its name from Arius, a priest from Alexandria. The heresy denied the divinity of Jesus, claiming that he was like the Father except that he was created by the Father.
From a Greek term (hypostasis) employed to describe the union of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in one Divine Person. The First Council of Ephesus (431) used this term and it was expanded and affirmed at the Council of Chalcedon.
Religious life in which men or women leave the world and enter a monastery or convent to devote themselves to solitary prayer, contemplation, and self-denial. After martyrdom became rare, monasticism became the most demanding way to live out a Christian vocation.
Edict of Milan
A joint declaration by the Roman emperor Constantine and Licinius in the East in 313 that legalized the practice of Christianity and other religions throughout the Roman Empire.
Christians of about the fourth century who withdrew into the desert to live an ascetic life of prayer, fasting, and abstinence. Their teachings had a profound impact on the theology and spirituality of the Church and the development of monasticism.
The political theory often practiced when Christianity was legalized that held that a secular ruler could also have authority over the Church, including in matters of doctrine.
Meetings of Catholic bishops from around the world, typically convened to discuss and resolve pressing theological topics.
Bishops of one of the five episcopal sees, the name for the places of residence of bishops; the Eastern patriarchates of Jerusalem, Antioch, Constantinople, and Alexandria; and the Latin patriarchate of Rome. In the early Church, the bishop of Rome (the pope) was acknowledged the principal patriarch.
Justinian Code of Law
A collection of laws written in Latin that were instituted by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and became the basis of European law. Its Christian orientation gave women and Children more protection than earlier law, but it still reflected the customs of its times, such as bodily mutilation as punishment for some crimes and repressive measures against non-Christians, including Jews.
A break in Christian unity that takes place when a group of Christians separates itself from the Church. This happens historically when the group breaks union with the pope.
The official list of inspired books in the Bible. The Catholic canon lists forty-six Old Testament books and twenty-seven new testament books.
From the early fourth century, the oldest complete copy of the Bible in existence; it features the forty-six books of the Old Testament and the twenty-seven books of the New Testament
Liturgy of the Word
The part of the Mass that includes the "writings of the prophets" and the "memoirs of the Apostles", the homily, the profession of faith, and the intercessions for the world.
The foundational statement of Christian belief that was produced by the Church leaders gathered at the First Council of Nicaea in 325.
The systematic contemplation within the Church on the Divine Person and work of Jesus Christ. In short: who is Jesus? What salvific work did he do and why does this matter?
The heresy spread by Nestorius, a fifth-century patriarch of Constantinople, that asserted that some of Christ's traits were purely human and others were purely divine.
the heresy taught in the fifth century that asserted that there is only one nature in the Person of Christ - his divine nature.
The heresy taught in the seventh century that claimed that Jesus has two natures but only one will - his divine will.
Latin for "and from the Son"; a phrase added to the Nicene Creed by the Western Church without the agreement of the Eastern Church to specify that the Holy Spirit proceeds from both the Father and the Son; it became a point of contention within Eastern Orthodoxy.
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