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Unit 4 Biology 181: Biodiversity
Terms in this set (64)
Composed of one or more cell
carry out metabolism
Transfer energy with ATP
What are things all organism share
Shared characteristics and sequence DNA
Biologist group organisms based on what?
The study of diversification of living forms both past and present and the relationship between organism through time
What is systematics
The identification and classification of organisms based on shared characteristics.
What is taxonomy?
What is another term for naming ?
Taxa, singular( taxon)
Organisms are grouped together into what?
Cladograms, phylogenies, Phylogenic trees
Relationship between organisms are visualized through what?
Hypothesis about patterns of relationships between species
What does Cladograms, phylogenies, Phylogenic trees do?
Linnaeus, Swedish Botanist
Who was consider the father of taxonomy?
The field of taxonomy or classification originated with who?
Binomial nomenclature and Linnaean Taxonomy
What did Linnaeus develop?
Naming for organisms
What is binomial nomenclature?
What is linnaean taxomomy
Genus + species epithet
What are the components of a scientific name?
The genus name is always what?
The species epithet is always what
underlined or italicized
The whole scientific name is always what?
Hierarchal system involving successive levels based on similarities and differences.
What is the Linnaean taxonomy?
Do Keep Pots Clean Or Family Gets Sick
What is the Mnemonic device for taxonomy?
Evolutionary history and relationship of organisms or group of organisms
What is phylogenies?
cladograms and phylogenic trees
What are phylogenies summarized by cladograms and phylogenic trees?
What does Phylon mean
What does genesis mean?
Depicts hypothesis of evolutionary relationships between organism
What are cladograms
Is an evolutionary unit that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants.
What is a clade
What indicates common ancestors?
Share an immediate common ancestor
What are sister clades?
Phylogenic trees indicate longer periods of time through long branches.
What is the difference between cladograms and phylogenic trees?
Phylogenic maps that show evolutionary relationships
Both phylogenic trees and cladograms are what?
taxa are grouped together based on what?
Phylogenic tree based on homologies(traits inherited by two different organism from a common ancestor)
What is homology ?
Shared derived characteristic
What is synapomorphy?
Trait shared by group of organisms but not shared by distant common ancestor
What is a Shared derived characteristic
Shared primitive/ancestral characteristic
What is symplesiomorphy
Trait shared with distant common ancestor
Shared primitive/ancestral characteristic
Shared character state not from common ancestor and a result of coevolution
What is homoplasy
Characters should exist in recognizable ...?
A clade for which the evolution of an amitotic membrane is synapomorphy is ...?
A clade, synapomorphy
In cladogram mammals would be an example of a _______ and hair would be an example of ________
Shared Derived characteristic
The presence of hair is a _____ of mammals
Presence of lungs in mammals is a ________; also in reptiles and amphibians
Systematics rely on this principle, which favors hypothesis that requires the fewest assumptions
What is the Principle of Parsimony
Principle of Parsimony
What favors the hypothesis that has the fewest assumptions?
Cladogram, the fewest number of evolutionary changes
Based on the Principle of Parsimony the _______ that requires the _____________________
Includes most recent common ancestors in a group and all of its descendants?
What is a monophyletic group?
Most reason ancestor of a group but not all of its descendants
Does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group
Taxonomic hierarchies groups should reflect what?
Complex characters, sequence of evolutionary steps
Most _________ do not evolve in one step but through _________
Polarize the characters( are they ancestral or derived)
What is the first step in cladistic analysis ?
The group we are interested in studying, closely related
The most different from the rest of the organisms. Has the most ancestral characteristics. Does not possess derived characters
Infoldings of membrane
engulfing other prokaryotic cells (endosymbiosis theory)
How does Eukaryotic cells evolve
Mitochondria evolved from
engulfed photosynthetic bacteria(cyanobacteria)
Chloroplast evolved from
What were the first eukaryotes
Plants, animals or fungi
Many protist are closely related to
Eukaryotes that are clearly not animals are referred to as
Diversity exists due to what
Both sexually and asexually
Are primary consumers
Many protisit like plankton are
Eating live or dead orgnanisms
Taking nutrients directly from environment is ...?
once set of chromosomes
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