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429 terms

Advanced Language Practice (Units 1-7)

Created by merging the Units needed for the 2011 Practical English IV exam. Some small mistakes were corrected.
STUDY
PLAY
allegedly
if someone .... does something, another person says that they have done it, even though this has not been proved (adverb)
amateur
someone who does something because they enjoy it instead of as a job
appeal
if something ....s to you, you like it or want it
armbands
plastic rings filled with air, worn around each arm by people learning to swim (plural)
aspect
a particular part, feature, or quality of something -> a system of rules that covers almost every ... of their lives (singular)
aspiring
hoping and trying to be successful at something, especially in your career -> an ... actor
association
a group of people who have joined together because they have similar interests or aims; a connection between two things
beneficial
something that is ... has a good effect or influence on someone or something
capability
the ability to do something
compass
a piece of equipment used for finding your way, with a needle that always points north
confederation
a group of people or organizations that are united
confidence
the belief that you are able to do things well -> You should have more ... in your own abilities.
contribute
to give money, goods, or your time and effort in order to achieve something, especially when other people are also helping -> Many local businesses offered to ... to the school rebuilding fund.
dedication
the large amount of time and effort that someone spends on something -> The project has been a success, thanks to the ... of all of our staff.
diversion
a change in the road or path that you take to get somewhere because the usual road or path is closed
do-it-yourself
the activity of making or repairing things yourself instead of paying someone to do it for you
exhaustion
a feeling of being extremely tired and without energy
facilities
something such as a room or piece of equipment that is provided at a place for people to use -> The hotel has excellent leisure ... (plural).
flipper
a wide flat rubber shoe that you use to swim faster
flourish
to grow well and be healthy; to be very successful
forbidden
not allowed according to a rule, law, or custom
goggle
to look at someone or something in a way that shows you are very surprised or impressed by them
heat (race)
a game or race at the start of a competition, the winners of the ... then compete against each other at the next stage
helmet
a hard hat that you wear to protect your head
highlight
the most exciting, impressive, or interesting part of an event (singular)
ideal (n)
the best example of something that you can think of or imagine
jog
to run at a slow steady speed, usually for exercise or pleasure
lap
one complete turn around a course in a race
laze about
to relax and enjoy yourself, doing no work
leisure
the time when you are not working or are not busy; activities that you do to relax or enjoy yourself
lens
a piece of curved glass or plastic that makes things seem smaller, bigger, or clearer
mask
something that you wear to cover part or all of your face in order to protect it from something harmful such as poisonous gas, bacteria, or smoke
mood swing
a sudden, unexpected change in the way that someone feels and behaves, especially when they become very angry or unhappy (singular)
novice
someone who is just beginning to learn a skill or subject; someone who has entered a religious community but is not yet a full member
nutritional
concerning food as something that keeps you healthy
occurence
something that happens, especially something unexpected and unpleasant -> computer errors are a common ... (singular)
opponent
someone who is competing against you (singular)
performance-enhancing drugs
something taken illegally by someone involved in sport to make them stronger, faster etc. (plural)
peter out
to gradually become smaller or weaker before coming to an end or disappearing completely
positive
believing that good things will happen or that a situation will get better
psychological
involving or affecting your mind; connected with the study of how your mind works
pump
a piece of equipment for making a liquid or gas move into or out of something -> an air ...
ratio
a relationship between the sizes of two numbers or amount -> a teacher-student ... of 1:20 (=1 teacher for every 20 students)
rucksack
a bag that you carry on your back, used when you are walking long distances or travelling to several different places
scuba diving
the activity of swimming under water with a container of air on your back and a tube for breathing through
sponsor
to pay for or give money to an event, a television or radio programme, a website etc as a way to advertise your products or services
stress
a worried or nervous feeling that stops you relaxing, caused, for example, by pressure at work or financial or personal problems
strive
to make a lot of effort to achieve something -> to ...
surpassed
even better than what was expected or hoped for
thrive
to become very successful, happy, or healthy
tripod
an object with three legs that is used for supporting something such as a camera
trying
difficult to deal with in a way that makes you annoyed or tired -> We've all had a very ... day.
turn a blind eye
to pretend you do not notice something, because you should do something about it but you do not want to
undergo
to experience something, especially something that is unpleasant but necessary
water chute
a tube or a smooth narrow open surface in a swimming pool that people slide down
abandon
to stop something that you are doing or planning to do, especially because it is too difficult to continue -> I finally ...ed my attempt to learn to drive.
accelerate
to happen or make something happen at a faster rate; if a vehicle ...s, it moves faster
aground
if a ship runs ..., it becomes stuck on a piece of ground under the water, where the water is not deep enough
air pollution
chemicals and other substances that have a harmful effect on air
alight
burning; if someone's face or eyes are ... , their expression shows a feeling such as excitement or happiness
alternative
different from something else and able to be used instead of it; not traditional
argument
an angry disagreement between people
ascend
to climb a mountain, stairs etc; if a road, path, or set of stairs ...s , it goes up
circumstance
a fact or condition that affects a situation
civic
relating to a town or city, especially to its government and public activities; relating to the people who live in a town or city or the duties and responsibilities that they have as citizens
collide
if people or things ..., they crash into each other
common
happening frequently, or existing in large amounts or numbers; used, done, or shared by two or more people
compensate
to pay someone money because they have suffered an injury or loss; to change or remove the bad result of something
completion
the process of finishing an activity or job; the time when an activity or job is finished
conductor (transport)
someone on a bus or train who checks passengers' tickets and collects money
congested
with so many vehicles or people that it is difficult to move around
cram
to put people or things into a space that is too small
current (tide)
a strong movement of water in one direction
deadline
a specific time or date by which you have to do something
deserted
a ... place has no people in it -> .... streets
dismount
to get off something such as a horse or bicycle
document (vb)
to record something in writing or on film
domestic
relating to people's homes and family life; relating to the country being talked about, and not other countries
dune
a hill of sand on a beach or in a desert
endanger
to put someone or something into a situation where they might be harmed or damaged
enormous
very large in size or quantity
eternal
continuing for ever or for a very long time
financial
involving money
gracefully
smoothly, attractively; in a way showing good manners and respect for other people
grizzly bear
a very large bear with brown fur that lives in the mountains of the north-western US
haunt (n)
a place that someone visits often because they enjoy going there
heyday
the period of time when a person, idea, or object is most successful or popular
initiative
the ability to decide in an independent way what to do and when to do it -> Employees are encouraged to use their ... if faced with a problem.
justified
if you are ... in doing something, you have a good reason for doing it and it is right that you should do it
mound
a pile of something such as earth or stones; a small hill, especially one that has been made by people
peak period
time, period etc is when the largest number of people are doing or using something -> Travelling at ...s is more expensive. (two words, singular)
occasional
happening sometimes, but not frequently or regularly (adjective)
passer-by
someone who is walking past a place, especially when an accident or violent event happens
rambler
someone who goes for long walks for enjoyment
rarely
not often
refuge
a place where you go to protect yourself from something dangerous or threatening
relatively
in comparison with someone or something similar -> a ... small basement flat
remotely
far away from anywhere or anyone else; from a distance
resemble
to be similar to someone or something, especially in appearance -> to ... something.
restriction
a rule, action, or situation that limits or controls someone or something -> travel ...
saturate
to make something completely wet -> Heavy rains ... fields and pastures.
schedule
a plan of activities or events and when they will happen
skid
to slide across the ground in an uncontrolled way -> The van ...ded to a stop right in front of the bus.
static
if something is ..., it does not move or change
stationary
not moving
steward
a man whose job is to look after the passengers on a plane, train, or ship, especially serving them with food and drinks.
stranded
left somewhere with no way of going anywhere else => Hundreds of passengers were left ... at the airport.
swarm
a large group of insects flying or moving together (singular)
throngs
a large crowd of people
undergrowth
small thick bushes that cover the ground, especially between larger trees in a forest
underpass
part of a road or path that goes under another road or under a railway
vehicle
a machine that you travel in or on, especially one with an engine that travels on roads, for example a car, bus, van, truck, or motorcycle (singular)
vital
very important, necessary, or essential; full of energy and life
wastes (n)
the useless materials, substances, or parts that are left after you use something -> toxic ...
widespread
happening or existing in many places, or affecting many people
wilderness
an area of land where people do not live or grow crops and where there are no buildings -> the Alaskan ...
according to
used for saying that something changes or is different depending on the situation; if you do something .... a plan or system, you do it in a way that agrees with this plan or system
advocate
to publicly support a particular policy or way of doing things
assurance
a feeling or attitude of being certain that something is true; a statement that something will happen or is true, made in order to remove any doubt about it
assure
to tell someone that something will definitely happen or is definitely true, especially in order to remove doubt about it; to do everything that you can in order to make certain that something happens
authority
the power to make decisions or tell people what to do; an organization or institution that controls something, often a public service
baffled
if you are ... from someone's behaviour or from some problem etc., you cannot understand it or solve it
basis
the important ideas, facts, or actions from which something can develop
bear out
to show that something is true or that someone is telling the truth -> Scientific evidence ...s ... the claim that stress and disease are linked. -> to ... ...
boost
to make someone feel more positive or more confident; to try to make people want to buy a product, visit a place etc, by talking about it publicly in a very positive way
chaos
a situation in which everything is confused and in a mess
closure
the process of temporarily preventing people from using a place, for example a road or bridge
combination
something that combines several things; the process of putting, using, or mixing things together
common knowledge
something that everyone knows
concerned
giving your attention to something because you think it is important -> He's more ... with what people think of him than anything else.
concerned (involved in sth)
involved in something, or affected by something -> It was a difficult time for all ... (=for everyone who was involved).
concrete (adj)
based on facts and information -> Let me give you a ... example of what I mean.
confidence
the belief that you are able to do things well -> He's a nice boy, but he doesn't have much ... .
controversial
a ... subject, opinion, or decision is one that people disagree about or do not approve of
debatable
something that is ... is not certain because it is possible for people to have different opinions about it
decline
to become less or worse; to say politely that you will not accept something or do something
detain
to keep someone in a police station or prison and not allow them to leave; to keep someone in hospital because they are too ill to leave
disclaim
to say that you do not have any responsibility for something, knowledge of something, or interest in something
disguise
to make changes in the way that someone looks so that other people will not recognize them -> She arrived at his home ... as a man.
disposal
the process of getting rid of something -> the ... of nuclear waste at sea
doubtful
not feeling certain about something; not certain or likely to happen or be true
dweller
someone who lives in a particular type of place -> city/country/cave ... (singular)
electorate
all the people who are allowed to vote in an election
event
an organized occasion such as a party or sports competition; something that happens, especially something that involves several people
exaggerated
described in a way that makes it seem better, worse, larger, more important etc than it really is; done in an extreme way that does not seem sincere or natural (adjective)
expansion
the process of making a business, organization, or activity grow by including more people, moving into new areas, selling more products etc
extensive
spreading over a large area; very large in amount or degree; involving a lot of details and information (adjective)
foreseeable
a ... event or time is one that can easily be imagined or known about before it happens
further to
used especially in letters to show that you are referring to a previous letter or conversation -> ... our recent telephone conversation, I am writing to confirm our meeting.
go-ahead
to start or continue to do something, especially after waiting for permission -> '...,' he insisted. 'I won't interrupt again.'
go-ahead (place)
to go to a place before someone else who you are with -> You ... and we'll wait here for Sally.
hazardous
dangerous, especially to people's health or safety -> ... driving conditions
headquarters
the place where a company or organization has its main offices; the place from which military action is controlled.
incident
something that happens, especially a violent, criminal, or dangerous event -> Police are appealing for witnesses to the ... .
justify
to show that there is a good reason for something, especially something that other people think is wrong -> You'll be expected to ... your actions.
likelihood
the chance that something might happen
loom
to appear as a large shape that is not clear, usually in a threatening way -> Suddenly the mountains ...ed up out of the mist.
mislead
to make someone believe something that is incorrect or not true
moreover
used for introducing an additional and important fact that supports or emphasizes what you have just said
negotiation
formal discussion in which people or groups try to reach an agreement, especially in a business or political situation
notorious
famous for something bad -> a ... criminal
occupant
someone who uses a room, building, area of land, seat, bed, or other place during a period of time -> The ... of the second car suffered minor injuries.
overpower
defeat in a fight or game; if you ...ed someone you affected her / him so strongly that they cannot think or behave normally
perilous
very dangerous
potential
possible or likely in the future -> The disease is a ... killer.
press (n)
newspapers and news magazines; a machine used for printing newspapers, books, or magazines
pride (vb)
feel proud about an achievement, skill, or special quality that you have; to ... on sth. (verb)
prominent
important and well known -> She is likely to play a ... part in the presidential campaign.
proportion
the size or shape of something; the degree of importance of something -> a disaster of catastrophic ...
prospect (n)
the possibility that something will happen, especially something good; chances of success, especially in a job or career -> employment ...
pull off
if a vehicle or driver ...s ... a road, they stop by the side of it -> If you're feeling sleepy, ... the road immediately and have a rest
quote
to say or write words that someone else has said or written
refugee
someone who leaves their country, especially during a war or other threatening event
reject (vb)
to not agree to an offer, proposal, or request; to refuse to take something, for example because it is damaged or is not what you wanted
resident
someone who lives in a particular place -> They are both ...s of the same village.
restore (exist again)
to cause a particular situation to exist again, especially a positive one -> electricity had been ...d.
restore
to make someone or something start being in a particular situation again -> Within minutes we had ...d the kitchen to its former tidiness.
resume
to start something again after stopping temporarily; to be started again after being stopped temporarily -> Talks will ... later.
rip apart
to destroy something completely
runway
a long road used by planes when they land and take off, usually at an airport
scandal
a situation that shocks you and makes you angry, especially one that you think someone in authority should change -> It's a ... that companies can charge so much for phone calls.
secure (vb)
to make an area or building safe; to get or achieve something important -> He ...d widespread support among the party's senior members.
severe
a ... problem is very serious and worrying; ... weather is extremely unpleasant and likely to cause harm or damage
speculation
ideas or discussion about why something has happened or what might happen -> There has been a great deal of ... about what will happen after the elections.
spokesperson
someone whose job is to officially represent an organization, for example in dealing with journalists
stand by
to be ready to do something; to be loyal to someone who is in a difficult situation -> We knew they would ... us no matter what we'd done.
strain
pressure caused by a difficult situation; mental pressure or worry -> i was feeling overworked and under ... .
suicide
the action of deliberately killing yourself
survivor
someone or something that still exists after every other member of a group has died or been destroyed -> He is the sole ... of the 1935 winnin
terminal
a large building where train, boat, or bus services start and finish
toll
an amount of money that you pay to use a bridge or a road
transform
to make someone or something completely different, usually in a way that makes them more attractive, easier to use etc -> Working with abused children ...ed Scott's life.
verge
... on something = to almost be in a particular state -> The test was so difficult it was ...ing on the ridiculous.
victim
someone who has been harmed, injured, or killed as the result of a crime; someone who has suffered as a result of the actions or negative attitudes of someone else or of people in general
vow
a serious promise
accumulation
the process by which something increases in amount or is collected together over time -> slow ... of cholesterol in the arteries
activate
to make a piece of equipment or a process start working
adequate
good enough or large enough for a particular purpose -> The house is perfectly ... for just the two of us.
advantage
something that makes one person or thing more likely to succeed than others -> the ... of a good education
afford (a view)
if you can ... something, you have enough money to be able to pay for it or you can do it without having to worry about it causing problems for you.
approximately
used for showing that an amount, number, time etc is not exact -> ... 60,000 people filled the stadium.
bay window
a large window that sticks out from the main wall of a house
bush
a plant that is smaller than a tree and has a lot of thin branches growing close -> a currant ...
capacity
the amount of something that can be put in a container, or the number of people that a place has room for -> There are plans to increase the ... of the stadium.
cathedral
the most important church in an area that a bishop controls -> St. Paul's ...
clutter
to put too many things in a place so that it looks untidy -> His bedroom was ...ed with books and papers. (verb)
cramped
small and crowded -> It was ... in the little cabin.
cultivate
to make land suitable for growing crops or plants; to grow crops or plants, especially in large quantities
damp
something that is ... is slightly wet, often in an unpleasant way or when it should be dry -> The wood won't burn if it's ... .
domestic
relating to people's homes and family life; relating to the country being talked about, and not other countries -> ... politics
domestic (animals)
a ... animal is one that is kept as a pet or on a farm
dune
a hill of sand on a beach or in a desert
economic
relating to the economy of a particular country or region; relating to business, industry, and trade
edition
a set of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are published at the same time -> the December ... of our magazine
estuary
the part of a large river where it becomes wide and flows into the sea
eventually
at the end of a process or period of time in which many things happen -> 'Did they ever pay you?' '..., yes.'
exclusively
used for emphasizing that something is available to or limited to one specific person, thing, or group -> a club ... for women
expert
someone who has a particular skill or who knows a lot about a particular subject -> a computer ... (singular)
focus
to concentrate on something and pay particular attention to it; to turn a part on a camera, telescope, microscope etc until you can see something clearly
furnished
a ... house, flat, or room is one that you rent with furniture already in it; with a particular type or amount of furniture
habitation
the fact that someone lives in a place -> The house showed no obvious signs of ... .
hinge
an object, usually made of metal, that fastens a door to a wall, or a lid to a container, and allows it to open and shut (singular)
horizon
the line in the distance where the sky seems to meet the earth -> The sun was setting on the ... .
impassable
an ... road, path etc is impossible to travel along, especially because the weather is too bad
inspiring
making you feel enthusiastic or excited about something -> an ... story
inviting
something that is ... is attractive and makes you want to experience it -> an ... outdoor pool
lease
a legal contract in which you agree to pay to use someone else's building, land, or equipment for a specific period of time
lodging
a place that you pay to live in temporarily, for example when you are visiting an area
mantelpiece
a shelf above the opening of a fireplace
medieval
relating to the period of European history between about the year 1000 ad and the year 1500; very old-fashioned
paused
stopped moving or what you are doing for a short time before starting again -> She ... at the door and then left.
pedestrian zone
an area where only pedestrians are allowed
persuade
to make someone agree to do something by giving them reasons why they should; to make someone believe that something is true
physical
relating to your body rather than your mind; relating to the way that someone or something looks -> ... appearance
porch
a small area covered by a roof at the entrance to a house or other building; a veranda (US)
possession
something that you own
premises
the buildings and land that a business or organization uses
residence
a house or other place where someone lives, especially a large house used by an important person -> the President's official ...
rusty
a ... metal object is covered in rust; red-brown in colour
scenery
natural things such as trees, hills, and lakes that you can see in a particular place -> Switzerland has some spectacular ... .
self-study
work that you do without the help of a teacher
sheer
used for emphasizing the amount or degree of something -> We were overwhelmed by the ... volume of work.
site
an area of land where something is being built or could be built -> a construction ...
skip (n)
a very large metal container used in the building industry for waste. It is carried away by a truck when it is full.
sparsely
existing in small amounts, or a large distance apart -> a ... populated country
spectacular
extremely impressive -> We had a ... view of the coastline from the plane.
squatter
someone who lives in a place without permission and without paying the owner
strait
a narrow area of water that joins two larger areas of water
streets ahead
much better than other people or things -> Radcliffe is ... of her rivals.
tenancy
the right to use a flat, building, or a piece of land that you rent from the person who owns it
tower above
to be much taller than someone or something else
undoubtedly
used for saying that something is certainly true or is accepted by everyone
uninviting
not attractive or pleasant -> The water in the lake looked cold and ... .
vertical
standing, pointing, or moving straight up. Something that is ... is parallel to the ground or its base
vicinity
the area near a particular place -> a university somewhere in the ... of London
action hero
any character that lacks the superhuman powers that would normally be connotated in superhero. They are normally people who use special devices. An example of ...s would be Batman.
autobiographical
relating to someone's life or autobiography
blatant
done in an obvious way that shows you are not embarrassed or ashamed to be doing something bad or illegal
bombard
to ask someone so many questions, give them so much information etc that it is difficult for them to deal with it all
booklet
a small thin book that gives you information about something
brainwash
to force someone to accept a particular set of beliefs by repeating the same idea many times so that the person cannot think in an independent way (verb)
brochure
a small magazine containing details and pictures of goods or services that you can buy -> summer travel ...
bulletin
a short news broadcast; a magazine or newspaper that a club or organization produces regularly to give information to its members
campaign
a series of things such as television advertisements or posters that try to persuade people to buy a product
cartoon character
a fictional character in a cartoon.
censorship
the process of removing parts of books, films, letters etc that are considered unsuitable for moral, religious, or political reasons
circulation
the number of copies of a newspaper or magazine sold each day, week etc -> a newspaper with a daily ... of more than 2 million
compensate
to change or remove the bad result of something -> This payment more than ...d for what we've lost.
conclude
to end, especially by someone saying or doing something -> The article ...s with the names and addresses of organizations that can help.
conclude
to decide that something is true after looking at all the evidence you have -> The report ...s that a world recession was unlikely.
conscious
noticing that something exists or is happening and realizing that it is important -> We are ... that some people may not wish to work at night.
consumer
someone who buys and uses goods and services
correspondent
a newspaper or television reporter, especially one who deals with a particular subject or area -> a political ...
couch potato
someone who spends a lot of time sitting at home watching television
coverage
news about something on television or radio or in the newspapers -> You can see live ... of England's game against France.
damning (adj)
showing that something is wrong or bad, or that someone has done something wrong or bad -> ... evidence of corruption in the commission (adjective)
data
facts or information used for making calculations or decision -> The analysis was based on ... collected in the field.
depict
to describe someone or something using words or pictures -> He was ...ed as a hero who died for his beliefs.
digital camera
a camera that takes and stores pictures in the form of electronic signals
dominated
controlled, often in a negative way, because you have more power or influence
edition
a set of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are published at the same time -> a copy of the latest ... of our magazine
excessive
in much bigger amount than is reasonable or necessary (adjective)
exposure
the act of making something publicly known because you believe that it is wrong or illegal ->... of corruption within the government
fiction
books and stories about imaginary events and people; a report, story, or explanation that is not true
gist
the main idea or most important point of something that someone has written or said -> I only got the ... of what he was saying.
glamorous
attractive and interesting in an exciting and unusual way -> It's a very ... holiday destination.
grounds (reasons)
reasons for what you say or do, or for being allowed to say or do something -> There do seem to be some ... (plural) for their complaints.
hallucinate
to see or hear something that is not really there, especially because of an illness or the effect of drugs
handicap (vb)
to give someone a disadvantage -> Some applicants were ...ed by their poor level of English.
humble
from a low social class; not proud and not thinking that you are better than other people -> a ... man
hype (vb)
to use a lot of advertisements and other publicity to influence or interest people
illegible
difficult or impossible to read -> Clare's handwriting is completely ... !
illiterate
someone who is ... cannot read or write
imitation
something that is a copy of something else, usually not as good as the original thing -> a crude ... of Hitchcock's earlier work.
inane
completely stupid -> He bombarded the lecturer with ... questions.
insulting
offensive -> I found his comments deeply ... .
journalist
someone whose job is to report the news for a newspaper, magazine, radio programme, or television programme
literature
stories, poems, and plays, especially those that are considered to have value as art and not just entertainment
manuscript
a writer's original pages of a book, article, or document before it is published -> Please send me a copy of your ... when it's finished.
media
a way of communicating information and ideas, especially to a lot of people, for example newspapers or television
nag
to frequently ask someone to do something that they do not want to do -> My mum keeps ...ing me to tidy my room.
negate
to make something have no effect
obvious
clear to almost anyone -> It's pretty ... he's crazy about you.
overweight
heavier than you should be; used about something that weighs more than it should -> ... baggage is subject to extra charges.
passive
accepting what happens without trying to control or change events or to react to things -> Watching television is a relatively ... activity.
political unrest
political disturbance or turmoil
promote
to move someone to a job at a higher level; to attract people's attention to a product or event, for example by advertising
prose
written language in its ordinary form, as opposed to poetry
restrict
to keep something within strict limits -> Doctors have ... the number of visits to two per day.
sceptical
having doubts about something that other people think is true or right -> I'm very ... about the results of the survey.
sensationalize
to write or talk about an event in a way that makes it seem as exciting and shocking as possible
sensible
reasonable and practical -> This seems to be a ... way of dealing with the problem.
sheer
used for emphasizing the amount or degree of something -> Maya succeeded through ... hard work.
situation comedy
a television or radio series about a particular group of characters who deal with situations in a humorous way - a sitcom
subliminal
a ... influence is one that may affect you even though you do not notice or think about it -> ... advertising
substance
the most important ideas or basic meaning of a discussion or a piece of writing -> He refused to discuss the ... of the meetings.
surreal
something ... is so strange that you cannot believe it is real
suspicious
believing that someone has probably done something wrong; making you believe that something is wrong, dangerous, or illegal (adjective)
swirling (adj)
moving quickly in circles, or making something move in this way
target (vb)
to try to persuade or to influence a particular group of people -> television advertising that is ...ed at children
unprintable
used for describing writing or words that you think are offensive
variety
a collection or number of people, things, ideas etc that are all different from one another -> People study yoga for a ... of reasons.
vast
extremely large -> a ... empty plain
visual
relating to things that you can see -> Television news brings us ... images from around the world.
whatsoever
used for emphasizing a negative statement -> It had no effect ... .
abound
to be present in large numbers or amounts -> Rumours ... about the breakup of her marriage.
assert
to state firmly that something is true -> He has continued to ... his innocence.
atmosphere (Earth)
the air round the Earth or round another planet
atmosphere
the mood or feeling that exists in a place and affects the people who are there -> After Joe left there was a more relaxed ... at home.
binoculars
a piece of equipment with two parts that you hold against your eyes and look through to see distant objects more clearly
born and bred
used for saying where someone was born and grew up -> Jane was ... in Seattle.
cancerous
CAUSING a serious illness caused by a group of cells in the body increasing in an uncontrolled way
captivity
a situation in which wild animals are kept in a place such as a park or zoo instead of living in their natural environment -> crocodiles that were born in ...
climate
the type of weather that a country or region has -> a hot / cold / mild / warm ...
cub
a young bear, lion, fox, wolf, or other wild animal
current (n)
a strong movement of water / air in one direction -> Birds of prey use air ... to lift them.
defunct
not existing or working any more
destruction
damage that is so severe that something stops existing or can never return to its normal state -> the ... of the environment
dire
very severe or serious -> Refugees are arriving in ... need of food and medical attention.
diverse
including people from many different cultures or races; very different from each other -> The newspaper aims to cover a ... range of issues.
doom
a bad event, usually death, destruction, or complete failure, that will happen in the future and cannot be avoided
draught
cold air that blows into a room and makes you feel uncomfortable
epitomize
to be the best possible example of a particular type of person or thing -> Singapore's Changi airport ...s the state's efficiency.
era
a period of time that has a particular quality or character.; a historical period with a particular character or feature -> the colonial / Roman ...
extent
the size and importance of a problem or situation -> the ... of the damage / injury
falconer
someone who trains and uses falcons to hunt
glacier
a very large mass of ice that moves very slowly
global warming
the slow increase in the temperature of the Earth caused partly by the greenhouse effect increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
hawk
a large bird that kills other birds and animals for food. It is sometimes used for hunting.
imminent
likely or certain to happen very soon -> Many species of animal are in ... danger of extinction.
influential
able to influence the way other people think or behave -> He is one of the most ... figures in the government.
insofar as
used for talking about the degree to which something happens -> She cites other scholars' work only ... it supports her own theories.
interaction
the activity of being with and talking to other people, and the way that people react to each other -> the... between mother and baby
issue
a subject that people discuss or argue about, especially relating to society, politics etc -> It's a website devoted to environmental ...s.
ivory
the yellowish-white bone that an elephant's tusks are made of
mature
a ... animal or plant has grown to its full size -> The ... bull weighs around 900 kilos.
millennium
a period of 1,000 years
nigh
to be going to happen soon -> The end of the world is ... !
nocturnal
... animals are active at night rather than during the day
off-shore
in the sea, not on the land. This word is used especially for talking about the oil industry.
prediction
a statement about what you think will happen in the future, or the process of making such a statement -> There is a ... that inflation will hold to 8.5% this year.
prey
an animal that is caught by another animal and eaten
prophet
according to some religions, a man sent by God to lead people and teach them their religious beliefs
proportion
quantity of something that is a part or share of the whole -> Only a small ... of graduates fail to find employment.
race (type)
a group of people who are similar because they have the same skin colour or other physical features
resources
things such as coal, trees, and oil that exist in nature and can be used by people -> Many of these countries are rich in timber and mineral ... (plural).
revolution
a situation in which people completely change their government or political system, usually by force
savannah
a large flat area of land covered with grass in a warm part of the world
species
plant or animal group whose members all have similar general features and are able to produce young plants or animals together
squeak
to make a short, high noise -> The door ...ed open.
stalk (n)
a long thin part of a plant with a flower, fruit, or leaf at the end -> celery / mushroom / cherry ...
substantial
important, or real; large in amount or degree -> ... differences between population groups.
survive
to stay alive despite an injury, illness, war etc -> His doctor says it's a miracle that he ...d.
time-honoured
done in the same way for a very long time -> a ... custom/method/procedure
torrent
a fast and powerful flow of liquid, especially water
tusk
one of the two very long pointed teeth on an animal such as an elephant or a walrus
virus
a simple living thing that is smaller than bacteria and that can enter your body and make you ill. A vaccine is a medicine that makes you immune to a particular ... .
vital
full of energy and life; very important, necessary, or essential
voluntary
a ... action is done because you choose to do it, and not because you have to, it is done for no pay
warrior
a soldier, especially in the past
wildebeest
an African wild animal that is a type of antelope with curved horns
wilderness
an area of land where people do not live or grow crops and where there are no buildings -> the Alaskan ...
administrative assistant
someone whose job is to help other people by doing office work
appalling
very unpleasant and shocking -> The conditions in the camps were absolutely ... .
bonus
extra money that you are paid in addition to your usual salary
client
someone who pays for the services of a professional person such as a doctor or lawyer
commence
to begin, or to begin something -> The trial ...s in 30 days.
complacent
too confident and relaxed because you think you can deal with something easily, even though this may not be true
conference
a large meeting, often lasting a few days, where people who are interested in a particular subject come together to discuss ideas -> an international ... on the control of illegal drugs
constant
continuous or regular over a long period of time -> a ... flow of traffic on the motorway
consult
to ask for information or advice from someone who has special knowledge about a particular subject -> Before going on a diet, it is advisable to ... your doctor.
content (adj)
happy and satisfied with your life -> She is ... to live quietly by herself.
contract
written legal agreement between two people or businesses that says what each must do for the other or give to the other -> a permanent / a fixed-term ...
convince
to make someone believe that something is true; to persuade someone to do something
creation
the act of creating something
curiosity
a strong feeling of wanting to find out about something -> All children have a certain ... about sexual matters.
driving licence
an official document that you need in order to drive. The American word is driver's license.
eligible
allowed by rules or laws to do something or to receive something -> If you are ... for financial help, we will tell you how to claim.
end of one's tether
to feel very upset because you are no longer able to deal with a difficult situation -> I'm at the ... with these kids.
eventually
at the end of a process or period of time in which many things happen -> We're hoping, ..., to create 500 new jobs.
executive
a senior manager in a business or other organization -> a meeting with some of the company's top ...s
forefront
a leading or important position -> Recent events had brought European issues to the ... of media attention.
headhunt
to try to persuade someone to leave their job and go to work for another company
in respect of
concerning -> The two groups are very similar ... age.
inspiration
a sudden feeling of enthusiasm, or a new idea that helps you to do or create something ->D reams are a rich source of ... for some writers.
intention
a plan in your mind to do something -> We have no ... of giving up.
lack
a situation in which you do not have any, or enough, of something that you need or want -> The court case was dismissed for ... of evidence.
mechanization
the process of using machines to do something that was previously done by people or animals
motivation
a feeling of enthusiasm or interest that makes you determined to do something; a reason for doing something
multinational
a ... company or business has offices, shops, or factories in several countries
necessary
essential or needed in order to do something, provide something, or make something happen -> basic foods regarded as ... for health
negotiate
to try to reach an agreement by discussing something in a formal way, especially in a business or political situation
nose to the grindstone
with your ... = working very hard (a phrase of 4 words)
notification
an official announcement about something that has happened or will happen
nowadays
at the present time, not in the past
on one's toes
keep ... = to make someone concentrate so that they are ready to deal with anything that might happen
opportunity
a chance to do something, or a situation in which it is easy for you to do something -> ... for career advancement.
permanent
happening or existing for a long time or for all time in the future -> We have a ... staff of 24, plus 8 seasonal workers in the summer.
praise
to express strong approval or admiration for someone or something, especially in public -> Mayor Dixon ...d the efforts of those involved in the rescue.
productivity
the rate at which goods are produced, especially in relation to the time, money, and workers needed to produce them
reimburse
to give someone the same amount of money that they have spent, for example on something connected with their work -> The company will ... you for your travelling expenses.
right up your street
exactly the type of thing that someone is interested in or is good at doing -> This sort of thing should be... .
scheme
a plan that is developed by a government or large organization in order to provide a particular service for people -> a training ...
sheer
used for emphasizing the amount or degree of something -> Maya succeeded through ... hard work.
substantial
large in amount or degree; important, or real -> The most ... regional newspaper is Caribbean Contact.
supplementary
additional -> ... income
unnecessary
not needed; used for describing something that should not have happened because it could have been avoided -> The delay was totally ... .
vocation
a job that you do because you feel it is your purpose in life and for which you have special skills -> Mason regarded teaching as his ... .
worthwhile
if something is ..., it is worth the time, money, or effort that you spend on it -> We felt the meeting had been very ... (adjective).