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endocrine gland

products carried away in blood stream

exocrine gland

products carried away by ducts leading from gland (i.e. salivary glands)

holocrine gland

entire cell dies releasing secretion

merocrine gland

secretions pass through cell wall and the cells stay intact (i.e. salivary glands


salivary glands develop from ____________ and grows downward into connective tissue.


bulb-like processes


tube-like processes

serous cells

secrete serous saliva which is a thin, watery fluid which contains serum-albumin


a protein found in many animal and vegetable tissues

mucous cells

secrete mucous saliva which is a ropy fluid which contains mucin


this is the main component of mucous and contains mucopolysaccharides/CHO)

mixed cells

contains both serous and mucous components (usually with more serous).

exocrine, merocrine, compound tubuloalveloar, and serous/mucous/mixed

how are salivary glands classified?

pyramidal cells

these are actually the serous and mucous cells which form a circular pattern and look pyramidal in shape

base of pyramidal cells

part of the pyramidal cells which is the outer edge and rests on CT

apex of pyramidal cells

part of the pyramidal cells which faces the center of tube or duct

myoepithelial cells

a star shaped branched cells that encircle terminal portions and "squeeze" the secretion into the duct by contracting
they are single epithelial cells capable of contracting ( what = muscle?)
they have long cellular projections which make them look like a squid


these are half moon shaped cells that lie between the secretory cells and the basement membrane which enclose the alveoli.
they are believed to be new epithelial cells which will replace epithelial cells that disintegrate

intralobular ducts

within the lobes; can be:
1) intercalated ducts
2) straited (secretory ducts)

intercalated ducts

are a type of intralobular duct that are very small.
they drain acini directly and carry secretions to straited ducts

straited ducts

are a type of intralobular duct where as saliva is passed through it, it is "modified"
water and ions are absorbed into the cells and secreted out basal end and picked up by bloodstream
it's purpose is to conserve water and electrolytes .

interlobular ducts

these are excretory ducts that do not modify saliva
they lie within CT between lobules of the gland
they are lard and carry secretions out of gland and to the surface of the oral cavity.


this is a complex fluid which bathes part of the tooth exposed within the oral cavity.

1 liters

how much saliva is produced in one day?


saliva is ___% water


saliva's PH is slightly __________.

functions of saliva?

acts as a SOLVENT
makes TASTE possible

Major Salivary Ducts

there are 3 pairs of these connected to the mouth by ducts
they produce most of the saliva in the mouth

parotid gland

this is the largest major salivary gland
on the side of the face, immediately below and in front of ear
secretes purely serous
25% of resting saliva through Stenson's Duct


the _________ gland is involved in epidemic parotitis (mumps). it is a viral infection that is painful when the gland secretes.

submandibular gland.

60-65% of resting saliva through Wharton's Duct
mixed gland, more serous than mucous
located below and toward posterior part of mandible

sublingual gland.

the smallest of the 3 major salivary glands
almond shaped
10% of resting volume
located in anterior floor of mouth next to mandibular canines
mixed gland; mostly mucous

ducts of rivinus

the small sublingual duct which opens into the mouth on the sublingual fold

Bartholin's duct

the larger of the sublingual ducts, which opens into the submandibular duct

Minor Salivary Ducts

these are more numerous and found throughout the oral cavity
they are unnamed and have shorter ductal systems
the function is to secrete small amounts of saliva and keep mucosa wet

labial glands

mixed gland
in upper and lower lips
opens onto inner surface

buccal glands

mixed gland
on inner cheek region

palatine glands

pure mucous gland
located in soft palate and posterior and lateral of hard palate
none in anterior portion of palate

glossopalatine glands

pure mucous gland
from posterior lateral hard palate into anterior fold of tissue in front of palatine tonsils

lingual glands

there are three of these, and they are anterior, von ebner, and posterior.

anterior lingual

mucous gland
near tip of tongue
opens onto ventral surface of tongue

lingual glands of von ebner

serous gland
located beneath vallate papillae
opens into trough around gland and washes off taste buds

posterior lingual

mucous gland
located around lingual tonsils on posterior third of tongue

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