OAT Biology Kaplan Chapter 5

Name the tenets of the cell theory
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Terms in this set (24)
1) All living things are composed of cells
2) The cell is the basic functional unit of life
3) The chemical reactions of life take place inside the cell
4) Cells arise only from pre-existing cells
5) Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA; this genetic material is passed from parent cell to daughter cell
During DNA replication, DNA does what?DNA tightly winds around the histones, compacting chromatin (loose DNA) into chromosomesDuring transcription, DNA does what?DNA unwinds itself from the histones, allowing for transcription to occurThe nucleus contains a dense structure called the nucleolus, where what takes place?where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occursDescribe prokaryotic DNA.Prokaryotic DNA is organized into small circular chromosomes located in a region of the cell termed the nucleoidRibosomes facilitate what?protein productionRibosomes are made of what?two rRNA sequences, called ribosomal subunitsAlthough rRNA molecules are synthesized in the nucleolus of eukaryotes, they function where?either in the cytoplasm as unbound ribosomes or on the outer membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum as bound ribosomesDescribe ribosome function in prokaryotes.While ribosomes are present, due to the lack of membrane-bound organelles, both rRNA synthesis and ribosome function occur in the cytoplasmWhat is the endoplasmic reticulum?network of membrane-enclosed spaces involved in the transport of materials throughout the cell, particularly those materials destined to be secreted by the cellWhich contains ribosomes: rough ER or smooth ER?Rough ER (ribosomes give it a rough appearance under microscopy)Rough ER plays an important role in what?in the production of proteinsWhat is the role of smooth ER?It is involved with metabolism and the production of lipids.What organelle is the primary site of cellular trafficking?Golgi apparatusDescribe the function of the Golgi apparatus.It receives vesicles and their contents from the smooth ER and then modifies them, repackages them into vesicles, and distributes them to the cell surface for exocytosis