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55 terms

Personality

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Personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Free Association
the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are aware.
Id
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
ego
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle. satisfying the id's desires in way that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
Psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development
Oral
Pleasure centers on the mouth--sucking, biting, chewing
Anal
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Phallic
Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Latency
Dormant Sexual feelings
Genital
Maturation of sexual interests
Oedipus Complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Identification
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
Fixation
A lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage
Defense Mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Regression
Defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
Adler
Inferiority complex
Horney
womb envy
Psychodynamic Theory
Our mental life is unconscious; childhood shapes our personalities and ways of becoming attached to others, and that we often struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears, and values
The Humanistic Perspective
emphasizes that growth potential of healthy people; includes Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Maslow
This person believed that we were motivated by a hierarchy of needs and that we ultimately seek self-actualization.
Self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation of fulfill one's potential
Rogers
Person believed that people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and empathetic and unconditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Self-concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" in humanistic psych
Questionnaires
Humanistic Psychologists use ________ to evaluate people.
Allport
Pioneer of Trait Psychology
Trait
____________ researchers search for identifiable patterns of behavior or conscious motives that describe basic dimensions of personality.
Fluids
Ancient Greek personalities
Melancholic
Depressed Ancient Greek personalities
Sanguine
Cheerful Ancient Greek personalities
Phlegmatic
Unemotional Ancient Greek personalities
Choleric
Irritable Ancient Greek personalities
Sheldon
Classified people by body type
Endomorph
Fat, Relaxed, Jolly
Mesomorph
Muscular, bold, and physically active
Ectomorph
skinny, high strung, solitary
Myers-Briggs Type Inventory
based off of Carl Jung's archetypes, a 126 question based on preferences
Personality Inventory
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Unstable introverted
Moody, Anxious, Rigid, Sober, Pessimistic, Reserved, Unsociable, Quiet
Stable Introverted
Passive, Careful, Thoughtful, Peaceful, Controlled, Reliable, Even-tempered, Calm
Unstable Extraverted
Touchy, Restless, Aggressive, Excitable, Changeable, Impulsive, optimistic, Active
Stable Extraverted
Sociable, Outgoing, Talkative, Responsive, Easygoing, Lively, Carefree, Leadership
Eyesnick
used extraversion-introversion and stability-instability- as axes describing personality variation
Empirically Derived Test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between them
The Big Five Personality Factors
Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness
Positive Psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Seligman
founder of positive psychology
Seligman
founder of learned helplessness
Positive Subjective Well-being
Happiness with the present, and optimism about the future define the movement's first pillar: positive subjective well-being
Positive Character
focuses on exploring and enhancing virtues virtues such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self control, leadership, wisdom and spirituality
Positive Groups
seeks to foster positive social ecology, including healthy families, communal neighborhoods, effective schools, socially responsible media, and civil dialogue