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an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Free Association

the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing


Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions


according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are aware.


contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.


the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle. satisfying the id's desires in way that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

Psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development


Pleasure centers on the mouth--sucking, biting, chewing


Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control


Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings


Dormant Sexual feelings


Maturation of sexual interests

Oedipus Complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father


the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos


A lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage

Defense Mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality


In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.


Defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history


Inferiority complex


womb envy

Psychodynamic Theory

Our mental life is unconscious; childhood shapes our personalities and ways of becoming attached to others, and that we often struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears, and values

The Humanistic Perspective

emphasizes that growth potential of healthy people; includes Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow


This person believed that we were motivated by a hierarchy of needs and that we ultimately seek self-actualization.


according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation of fulfill one's potential


Person believed that people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and empathetic and unconditional positive regard

Unconditional Positive Regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person


all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" in humanistic psych


Humanistic Psychologists use ________ to evaluate people.


Pioneer of Trait Psychology


____________ researchers search for identifiable patterns of behavior or conscious motives that describe basic dimensions of personality.


Ancient Greek personalities


Depressed Ancient Greek personalities


Cheerful Ancient Greek personalities


Unemotional Ancient Greek personalities


Irritable Ancient Greek personalities


Classified people by body type


Fat, Relaxed, Jolly


Muscular, bold, and physically active


skinny, high strung, solitary

Myers-Briggs Type Inventory

based off of Carl Jung's archetypes, a 126 question based on preferences

Personality Inventory

a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

Unstable introverted

Moody, Anxious, Rigid, Sober, Pessimistic, Reserved, Unsociable, Quiet

Stable Introverted

Passive, Careful, Thoughtful, Peaceful, Controlled, Reliable, Even-tempered, Calm

Unstable Extraverted

Touchy, Restless, Aggressive, Excitable, Changeable, Impulsive, optimistic, Active

Stable Extraverted

Sociable, Outgoing, Talkative, Responsive, Easygoing, Lively, Carefree, Leadership


used extraversion-introversion and stability-instability- as axes describing personality variation

Empirically Derived Test

a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between them

The Big Five Personality Factors

Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness

Positive Psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive


founder of positive psychology


founder of learned helplessness

Positive Subjective Well-being

Happiness with the present, and optimism about the future define the movement's first pillar: positive subjective well-being

Positive Character

focuses on exploring and enhancing virtues virtues such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self control, leadership, wisdom and spirituality

Positive Groups

seeks to foster positive social ecology, including healthy families, communal neighborhoods, effective schools, socially responsible media, and civil dialogue

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