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Microbiology Exam 2
Terms in this set (40)
Which mode of bacterial motility would you expect to have on a dry surface?
On a bacterium with a ___________________ flagellar organization, you would expect a flagellum on both poles of the bacterium, however, on lophotrichous arrangement you would expect ____________________,
Amphitrichous; multiple flagella at one pole
What would the analogous structure of MotB be in a Na+ dependent bacterial flagellum?
Which of the flagellar components labeled would most likely interact with phosphorylated CheY?
In bacteria, rotation of the flagellum _________________ will result in ___________________.
Counterclockwise (CCW); a run
In response to a recent increasing gradient of a chemoattractant, you would initially expect what?
A decreased occurrence of tumbles.
In response to being exposed to the same chemoattractant for a while, you would expect what?
An increase in tumble frequency.
If CheY was no longer functional, you would expect what?
The flagellum running CCW.
If CheR was no longer functional, what would you expect?
CheA phosphorylation wont be repressed.
MCP methylation is important for the chemotaxis system ___________________.
How do cells typically lower the activation energy of a reaction?
By the use of enzymes.
Because of the proton motive force, in most bacterial cells there is an overall______________on the cytoplasmic (inside) side of the cell membrane and a ____________________on the periplasmic (outside) side of the membrane.
Negative charge; Positive charge
From our discussion in class, in regards to Chlamydia trachomatis being unable to make it's own ATP, which of the follow would be most useful for this pathogen?
In general, what is the primary function of the pentose phosphate pathway?
Rearrange sugars into more useful forms.
What is the net output of glycolysis from one glucose molecule?
(hint: net = total profit after all expenses)
2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate.
The main purpose of fermentation is to do what?
Regenerate the NAD+ pool.
In a typical chemoorganotroph, what would be the likely consequence of inhibiting the function of quinones?
A significant loss of proton gradient.
For lithotrophic organisms, substrates like hydrogen gas, sulfide, and iron can be used to ___________________. , however, ___________ is the least efficient at this.
donate electrons to regenerate NADH.; iron
For cyclic phototrophy the reaction center is the original electron donor, while terminal electron acceptor is what?
The reaction center.
How does an organism generate NADH during oxygenic acyclic phototrophy?
Buy using a secondary photosystem.
Bacterial cells go through a process called ____________________ that usually results in _________________________.
binary fission; 2 identical daughter cells
An ftsZ mutation must be conditional (temperature-dependent) because it will eventually be lethal for a bacterial culture.
A mutation (loss of function) in minD would also result in a loss of function of what?
A loss of function in which of these choices is not lethal?
A mutation (loss of function) of noc would...
only kill some cells.
For a pre-existing culture of a bacterial species, what measurement method would require more culturing (growth)?
In a batch culture, you would expect optical density to be increasing when measured with a spectrophotometer in what phase?
For a hyperthermophile, at what temperature would you expect its proteins to function properly at?
80 degrees C
What type of bacteria would be actively growing in a standard refrigerator (about 4 degrees C)?
What is one of the most damaging compounds produced by bacterial respiration?
A ____________ organism would be one that would synthesize everything from basic precursors, while a ______________ would requite many specific compounds to grow.
Which of the following is false about protein cofactors?
They are incorporated into the proteins like amino acids.
Which of the following forms of transport can concentrate a substrate?
Primary active transport would specifically utilize __________ to transport substrates against a gradient, which is powered by _________.
ABC transporters; ATP
PTS transport would utilize the transfer of what to import glucose into a cell?
Siderophores are molecules secreted by bacteria that can capture iron. These can be sequester by any bacterial species.
In order to utilize a very large extracellular protein, a bacterium would usually have to do what?
Secrete a protease
Which of the secretion systems are typically involved with translocating unfolded proteins outside of the cell producing the proteins?
Type III Secretion System
For proteins translocated using the General (Sec) secretion pathway, which of the following is false?
These proteins are usually folded before secretion
The TAT system uses what to secrete proteins?
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