Ch. 7: Magic and Divination
Terms in this set (103)
a magician who specializes in antisocial, evil magic
In science, a tentative statement based upon experimental and observational data that is subject to further study
In science, a framework for understanding that is supported by a large amount of consistent scientific data
perceived through our senses
The ability to develop new experiments and observations that will test the validity of a conclusion
Law of Sympathy
Magic that depends on the apparent association or agreement between things
Law of Similarity
Things that are alike are the same
Law of Contagion
Things that were once in contact continue to be in contact after the physical connection is severed
This type of magic is based on the Law of Similarity
Magic that is based on the Law of Similarity
ways in which a person can compel the supernatural to behave in certain ways
magic that is based on the Law of Contagion, utilizing things that once were in physical contact with an individual
A form of homeopathic magic in which an image represents a living person or animal, which can be killed or injured through doing things to the image
A type of ritual whose purpose is to aid the survival and reproduction of a totemic plant or animal
doctrine of signatures
Belief that physical structures found in nature, such as the shape of a plant, are indicative (or signatures) of their potential use in healing
The words that are spoken in a magic ritual
a revival of pre-Christian religious practice
supernatural techniques for obtaining information about things unknown, including events that will occur in the future
a type of divination that involves a spiritual experience, such as a direct contact with a supernatural being through an altered state of consciousness
forms of divination that are performed without the direct involvement of supernatural beings
refers to noninspirational divination
divination that simply occurs without any conscious effort
divination that someone sets outs to do
divination by the interpretation of dreams
a feeling in a person that something is about to occur
divination through contact with ancestors or the dead
divination from reading the path and form of a flight of birds
divination by a chance meeting with an animal
divination by the examination of entrails of sacrificed animals
a divination technique in which a dried scapula, or shoulder blade, is placed in a fire and the pattern of cracks and burns are interpreted
divination by the use of flour, as in fortune cookies
the belief that all of the stars and planets, as well as the sun and moon, influence the destiny of people and that reading the sky can be used a divination technique
method of divination whereby water and other underground resources are located by use of a forked stick
divination through handwriting analysis
divination through the reading of the lines of the palm of the hand
divination through the study of the shape and structure of the head
divination through the reading of tea leaves
an altered state of consciousness that is interpreted as a deity taking control of a person's body
divination through the communication of a prophet; it is fortuitous
a practitioner who intentionally communicates with the supernatural to find information
a trial by divination that is performed on the body of the accused person to determine guilt or innocence
divination by the casting of lots such as the rolling of a die or the drawing of straws
All peoples make detailed observations about their world and sometimes manipulate objects in their environment in order to come to some understanding of their world.All peoples have systems of technology that use rational and practical methods to achieve certain objectives. True or false?
In the scientific community, science is a methodology for coming to an understanding of our world through objective observations, experimentation, and the development of hypotheses and theories. True or false?
BLANK BLANK in his book, The Golden Bough, originally published in 1890, articulated the Law of Sympathy. This Law has two parts: Law of Similarity and Law of Contagion.
Law of BLANK gives rise to homeopathic, or imitative, magic. whereas, the Law of BLANK gives rise to contagious magic
BLANK or BLANK magic assumes that there is a causal relationship between things that appear to be similar. The similarity can be physical or behavioral.
An example of image magic, that is not specifically seen as magic ritual, is the BLANK BLANK of the Australian Aborigines.
Many of the practices that are labeled "BLANK BLANK" or "homeopathic medicine" in American society are based on the Law of Similarity.
Among the Beng of the Ivory Coast, West Africa, a BLANK BLANK is told not to eat meat from the bushbuck antelope, which has striped coast, because her child will turn out with stripes.
An example of contagious magic in the United States is that of the BLANK's foot. Since it has to be lucky to not be eaten by predators, it must have luck. If we carry a part of this lucky animal, the luck will rub off on us.
BLANK magic is found among the New Guinea. When in battle, the person who was hurt by the arrow is cured with poultice, and the arrow is also with poultice since this will also cure the wound because it was connected to it. The enemy who fired the arrow, is using counter-magic by keeping the bow near the fire and twang the string from time to time to keep the wound painful.
BLANK behavior can result out of the juxtaposition of a behavior with a desired result. For instance, the eating of a tuna sandwich before winning a big game can be seen as one causing the other. So, in order to ensure winning, the person continues to eat the tuna sandwich before each big game. Such rituals are found most frequently in those areas that are most BLANK to control and are therefore most influenced by random fluctuations of success.
false ( It is possible to set something in motion without being aware of it, without deliberately performing a ritual)
All magic is directed or purposeful. True or false?
Human mind frequently sees coincidence as evidence of causation. true or false?
BLANK addressed the question of why people believe magic works. the answer is because magic appears to never fail. First, magic often attempts to bring about events that will occur naturally. Humans are very resistant to changing their beliefs, when when presented with evidence to the contrary.
false (they ask for possible things to occur)
People generally ask things that are impossible to do with magic. True or false?
magician, magic, counter
If you do not get the expected results, it could be because you did not do it right; the failure is with the BLANK, not the BLANK. it could also fail because of BLANK-magic
There is an issue of BLANK memory, when it comes to believing magic. humans tend to remember successes, and not failures.
Among the Aborigines death magic, or antitherapy rituals, death occurs, according to Harry D. Eastwell, because of the result of extreme fear, social death, and therefore lack of food and water from the part of the family. True or false?
There are three types of knowledge among the BLANK BLANKs: everyday knowledge of the world, specialized knowledge (e.g. sailing, particular magical rituals), and knowledge of the most complex and valued technological skills(e.g. canoe building, magic, myths, songs, dances)
Among the BLANK, magic involves the use of objects, usually of plant material, called medicines. A medicine is an object in which the supernatural power resides
There are large numbers of plants from which medicines are derived. Sometimes the association between the nature of the plant and its use is clearly based on the BLANK of BLANKs. (Azande magic)
Zande BLANK rites are not very formal, nor are they usually public. Although there are some public ritual such as war magic performed by a chief, most magic is performed by a single individual for his or her immediate need.
Unlike magical spells in other societies, BLANK does not recite in the spell. Rather it resides in the medicine, and the spell is simply a way of waking up the power and giving the power instructions.(Azande)
For the Azande, magic rituals require the observation of a number of BLANK; if not observed, the magic will fail.
The BLANK attempt to prevent kuru by attempting to deprive the sorcerer of the materials he needs. Much day to day behavior involves the hiding of hair clippings, parings, feces, and food scraps.
Many magical techniques use materials that were once in contact with the victim, as in kuru, but many use special BLANKs that are placed where the victim will make contact with them, such as on a trail. (Fore)
In nankili, or BLANK (a lung condition), the sorcerer makes bone needles out of the bones of pigs, cassowary, or possums. He blows smoke on the bone needles to make the needles fly into the victim's body. (Fore)
The magic ritual usually consists of a stated goal, the manipulation of specific objects, and the observation of special conditions, such as place and time. However, the core of the ritual, what is often considered the "real magic," is movement of energy, which takes place within the practitioner. These are characteristic of what type of magic?
BLANK magic is based on the worldview that there is a power that exists in all things
The wiccan religion is closely connect to BLANK and the working of magic spells might require a consideration of weather, season, lunar phase, and/or time of day.
For wicca, magic is to be used when all else fails and in conjunction with more mundane efforts. True or false?
BLANK is based on the manipulation of perceived connections between things; BLANK is based on observing these connections
a specific device that is used for divination and can refer to inspirational and noninspirational forns.
some scholars see two basic categories of dreams: 1: is the individual dream, the kind that comes from the inside of the dreamer, 2: the source of the dream may lie outside of the dreamer. True or false?
BLANK types that include the manipulation of objects. E.G. flipping a coin, Ouija board, magic 8 ball, and tarot cards.
The I Ching, or The BLANK of BLANK, is a Chinese divination text that is thousands of years old. The methods described provide much more than just yes/no answers and are seen not so much as foretelling the future, but rather as revealing what the person needs to do to live in harmony with the forces of the universe that control the future.
Among the BLANK of Liberia, trials are conducted through the use of the hot knife ordeal.
false (the innocent may suffer, e.g. trial by water)
In ordeals, the guilty always suffers. true or false?
Among the Fore, the most common divination technique uses a possum as a vehicle for supernatural revelation. The victim's hair clippings is placed in one small bamboo tube, in another tube, they insert the body of a freshly killed possum. Striking one bamboo against the other, they call the name of the supposed sorcerer and then place the bamboo containing the animal in fire The guilt of the accused is established if the possum's liver the locus of consciousness, remains uncooked. true or false?
Zande, iwa, dakpa, benge
BLANK oracles have been described in great detail by Evans-Pritchard. The best known are BLANK, the rubbing-board oracle; BLANK, the termite oracle; and BLANK, the poison oracle.
iwa, dakpa, benge
BLANK is manufactured and used by humans and therefore is thought to be prone to error. A greater level of accuracy is give by BLANK. Lastly, the most important Zande oracle is BLANK.
With the BLANK oracle, the behavior of the chickens, especially by their death or survival, the Azande receive answers to the questions they place before the oracle.
The Greeks considered BLANK to be the center (literally the navel) of the world.
Inhaling a pneuma, or sweet-smelling gas, which came from the chasm, BLANK, who would be possessed by the god Apollo, would enter into an altered state of consciousness. Questions, written on lead tablets, were passed on to her and she would answer. A priest or poet nearby would then interpret what she had said and record it in verse.
The basis of BLANK is the assumption of a casual relationship between celestial phenomena and terrestrial ones and the influence that the stars and planets have on the lives of human beings.
The origins of astrology appear to have been in BLANK, where it was the most common form of divination.
The casting of BLANK did not occur until the fifth century B.C.E., rather late in the history of Babylonian astrology
Crucial to Babylonian astrology was the idea that the movements of the celestial bodies represented the will of the gods. True or false?
The sky was seen as containing the "BLANKs" of the 3 principal gods: Anu, Enlil, and Ea (Babylonian astrology)
Greece, Rome, Egypt
From Babylonia, astrology spread to BLANK, BLANK, and BLANK, where it was developed far beyond what the Babylonians had achieved.
BLANK is credited with discovering the position of the equinoxes around 130 B.C.E., thus laying the foundation for the horoscope as we know it.
From the BLANKs, we also get the fully developed zodiac
With the discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler, astrology lost any scientific basis and became separate from astronomy. True or false?
Sometimes a particular element describes a person very well-in which case we are impressed-while other elements do not-in which case we either ignore it or reinterpret the element in such a way that does fit. True or false?
the basis of BLANK thinking: seeming ability to directly influence, and, to some degree, control the nonhuman world through ritual activity.
BLANK thinking is a very human way of thinking and is practiced at some time or another by every one of us.
BLANK gives us control and BLANK gives us knowledge
There is a negative side to the use of magic and divination. It can give us a sense of control where control does not exist. True or false?
Magic deals with supernatural forces and thus is a BLANK phenomena.