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Clerical immortality

Neglect of celibacy, drunkenness, gambling. Created a scandal

Clerical Ignorance

Lack of education of clergy

clerical pluralism and absenteeism

Many clerics had several benefices at once, yet they seldomly visited them or performed the spiritual responsibilities those offices entailed. Instead they collected revenues from all of them.


Clerical offices.

The Brethren of Common Life

Holland. A group of pius laypeople who lived in stark simplicity while daily carrying out the Gospel teaching of feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, and visiting the sick. Saught to make religion a personal, inner experience.


a synonym for moral corruption.



Pauline Letters

the letters which Luther studied and discovered his faith.

Papal dispensation



Believed to secure total remission of penalties for sin, on earth or in purgatory, and ensured swift entry into heaven.


belief of the catholics that the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ, who is fully present in the bread and wine.


The belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present


also known as the regulatory court, became Calvin's instrument of power. This body was composed of the elders and pastors and was presided over by one of four syndics. It enforced the strictest moral discipline.

Presbyterian church

National church of scotland

Counter Reformation

Started in 1540s as a reaction to the rise and spread of Protestantism. Involved catholicj efforts to convince or coerce dissidents or heretics to return to the church lest they corrupt the entire community of Catholic believers.


the strict enclosure of women

John Knox

Brought Calvinism to Scotland from Geneva.

Pope Paul III

Called the Council of Trent (1545-1563) during the counter reformation.

Ulrich Zwingli

Introduced the reformation in Switzerland. Believed in the supremacy of Scripture, opposed to indulgences, the Mass, monasticism, and clerical celibacy.

Archbishop Cranmer

Engineered the divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine.

John Tetzel

Domican Friar who was hired by Archbishop Albert to sell indulgences.

Martin Luther

Believed that salvation comes NOT through external observances and penance but through a simple faith in Christ.

Angela Merici

founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to proved education and religious training

Henry VIII

England. Divorced Catherin of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. The result was the nationalization of the English church and a break with Rome as he used Parliament to legalize the Reformation.

Charles V

Emperor. Held the Diet of Worms where he excommunicated and declared Luther an outlaw.

Mary Tudor

Attempted to bring Catholicism back to England

Pope Alexander VI

A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church. The pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America; Father of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia.

Council of Trent

Called not only to reform the church but also to secure reconciliation with the protestants. Dealt with both doctrinal and disciplinary matters. Rejected Lutheran and Calvinist positions. Required bishops to reside in their own dioceses, suppressed pluralism and simony, and forbade the sale of indulgences. Clergy must be educated. Ended secret marriages.

Elizabethian Settlement

Required outward conformity to the Church of England

Act of Restraint of Appeals

Declared the English monarch the supreme sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy.

Peace of Augsburg

Charles V recognized Lutheranism. Each prince permitted to determine the religion of his territory.

Ninety-five Theses

A letter written by Luther to Archbishop Albert arguing that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance, and downplayed the importance of charity in Christian life.

Roman Catholicism

Salvation is achieved by faith and good works. Authority rests in the Bible and the teachings of the church. Practiced a clerical, hierarchial institution headed by the pope in Rome.


Salvation comes by faith alone. God, not people, initiates salvation. Authority rests in the Word of God, in the Bible alone. All vocations have equal merit, whether ecclesiastical or secular. There are only 3 sacraments- Baptism, penance and Eucharist (the lords supper)


Originated in Geneva, "a city that was a church." Believed in the omnipotence of God, the insignificance of humanity, and predestination. The most dynamic and influential form of protestantism.


Believed in adult baptism, revelation, religious tolerance, pacifism, and the separation of church and state. Bitterly persecuted.

Presbyterian Church of Scotland

Strictly calvinist in Doctrine, adopted a simple and dignified service of worship, and laid great emphasis on preaching. Founded by John Knox

Diet at Worms

Held by emperor Charles V to order Luther to recant and declare him an outlaw.

Augsburg Confession

1530. Makes Luther's break with Church permanent, he founds the Lutheran Church.

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