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Ionic Bonds Chapter 4
Terms in this set (62)
The most stable number of valence electrons is either ____ or _____.
1 or 8
An atom with 5,6, or 7 valence electrons doesn't have enough to reach ____.
These atoms with 5,6,or 7 valence electrons should gain more electrons to become more ______.
An atom with 2,3, or 4 has too ______ valence electrons for the stable number of 1.
An atom with 2,3, or 4 valence electrons should _____ electrons to become more stable.
(voc) an atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged
Ions form between ______ and _______.
metals and nonmetals
When an atom loses an electron, it loses a negative charge and becomes a __________ ____.
When an atom gains an electron, it gains a negative charge and becomes a __________ _____.
Ionic bond example: Sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl) become _______ _______. (NaCl)
(voc) attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions
The ionic bond is similar to the attraction between opposite poles in 2 ________.
Compounds are electrically ________.
When positive charged sodium (Na) comes together with chlorine (Cl), the charges _________ each other out.
(voc) ions made of more than 1 atom
"poly" means _______; poly-atomic literally means "______ _______"
many / many atoms
In naming ionic compounds, the _________ ion comes first. It is usually a ______.
positive / metal
In naming ionic compounds, if the negative ion is an element, its name ends in ______ (like oxide)
In naming ionic compounds, if it's poly-atomic, its name is _____________.
Every ion is attracted to ions near it that have an ________ charge.
Solids are bound ________.
The strong attraction between ions makes it difficult to add enough ________ ________ to move them out of formation.
Solid ionic compounds don't conduct _________ but _______ do.
electricity / liquids
Sodium Fluoride =
Lithium Oxide =
Aluminum Sulfide =
Magnesium Sulfate =
Potassium Nitrate =
Calcium Hydroxide =
(voc) formed when 2 atoms share electrons
Covalent bonds are formed between 2 or more ____________.
In covalent bonds, both atoms attract the shared ________ at the same time.
In covalent bonds, the number of bonds they can form equals the number of _______ __________ needed to make that atom have 8.
Example of covalent bonds:
Oxygen has 6 valence electrons, therefore it can form ____ bonds.
(voc) molecules that have covalently bonded atoms
Molecular compounds have relatively low ________ ________.
Only some molecular compounds form _______.
Molecular compounds are poor _____________.
In molecular compounds, some atoms pull more strongly on the shared electrons than other atoms do. As a result, the electrons move closer to one atom, causing the atoms to have slight _________ ________.
This causes the atoms to become ________.
A covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally are ________.
If the valence electrons are shared equally, the atoms are ________.
Differences in the attractions between molecules lead to different properties in ________ and _________ compounds.
polar and nonpolar
An example of polar and nonpolar:
Water is polar, and oil is nonpolar, therefore water and oil do not _____.
(voc) a naturally occurring solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
The arrangement of particles in a mineral and the kinds of bonds holding them together determine properties such as:
the way the crystal _______ ______
crystal / hardness / breaks apart
Properties of ionic crystals:
Properties of covalent crystals:
In an ionic compound, the ions are arranged in a three-dimensional structure called a _______.
Characteristic properties of ionic compounds include:
______ melting points
crystal / high / electrical
In covalent bonds, pairs of electrons are ______ between atoms.
In polar covalent bonds, the _______ electrons are attracted more to one atom than the other
Attractions between polar molecules are stronger than attractions between ____________ molecules, leading to differences in ___________
nonpolar / properties
Minerals have characteristic properties, such as: h_________, d_______, c______, c____ s_____, and the way a crystal ______.
hardness / density / color / crystal shape / breaks
The properties of a mineral depend on its _________ _________ and its bonding.
Mineral crystals may contain ______ or covalently bonded _______.
ions / molecules
The stronger the ________ _______ in a mineral crystal, the harder the crystal is. (red-rover)
(voc) an orderly, three-dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid
(voc) a chemical bond formed when two atoms share two pairs of electrons with each other
(voc) the description of a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally, or of a molecule containing nonpolar bonds or polar bonds that cancel out
How does an ion form from an atom?
The atom gains or looses an electron, causing it to become positive or negative.
Properties of ionic compounds:
crystal shape / high melting points / electrical conductivity
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