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Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 8
Terms in this set (63)
What is psychosocial development?
it encompasses changes in individuals' understanding of both themselves and others' behavior
What does the "initiative" part of the initiative-versus-guilt stage mean?
the desire to act independently from parents and becoming autonomous
What does the "guilt" part of the initiative-versus-guilt stage mean?
unintended consequences resulting in shame and self-doubt
What is self-concept?
A person's identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual
True or False? A preschooler's self-concept is accurate.
False: they are optimistic and overestimate their skills and knowledge
What are the two types of orientation?
Collectivist orientation and individualistic orientation
True or False? Racial identity develops slowly.
How are gender differences revealed?
How do preschoolers view gender?
Gender roles are strictly distinct.
How is gender different from sex?
Sex refers to chromosomes and genetics, while gender refers to femaleness or maleness.
What can have an effect on gender-based behaviors?
Which parent to preschoolers tend to identify with?
Their same sex-parent
How do preschoolers learn gender-related behaviors and expectations?
They learn from observing others and from TV/media
What is gender schema?
Cognitive framework that organizes relevant gender information
What is gender constancy?
a child's realization that gender is fixed and does not change over time
What do transgender children sometimes believe? :(
They believe that they are trapped inside the body of the other gender
What is androgyny?
Gender roles that encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes
What are preschool friendships based on?
Companionship, play, and fun
As preschoolers grow, how do their ideas of friendships change?
They begin to understand trust, support, and shared interest. They see it as a continuing state and stable relationship
What is functional play?
Simple, repetitive activities; may involve objects or repetitive muscular movements
What is constructive play?
Activities in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something.
What is parallel play?
play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
watch each other play
interact with one another in groups of two or more, sharing or borrowing toys or materials, but do not do the same activity
play with one another, take turns, play games, and devise contests
play by themselves
True or False? Preschool children can generate explanations for how others think and reasons for why they behave.
What are 8 ways that preschoolers generate explanations for how others think and reasons for why they behave?
1. They can see the world from others' perspectives
2. They can imagine things not physically present
3. They can pretend and react to imagined events
4. They know that others have the capability described in the last point
5. They begin to understand motives
6. They understand that people can be fooled
7. They have an incomplete understanding of "beliefs"
8. Some can solve false belief problems
What are five pieces of evidence that preschooler's "theory of mind" is emerging?
1. Brain maturation through increased amounts of myelin
2. Hormonal changes
3. Developing language skills
4. Opportunities for social interaction and pretend play
5. cultural background
What is authoritarian parenting?
parents impose rules and expect obedience
What is permissive parenting?
High nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
What is authoritative parenting?
parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children
What is uninvolved parenting?
Parents who have little care or influence in their child's life
True or False? A child's behavior can result from a specific parenting style
What concept do Chinese parents tend to use?
What parenting method are U.S. parents advised to use?
What is the primary concept that Hispanic parents teach their children?
True or False? The child can sometimes be responsible for abuse.
False: the child is never responsible for abuse
Where is physical abuse most frequent?
Families living in stressful environments
What is the most frequent form of abuse?
What is psychological maltreatment?
This occurs when parents or other caretakers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning
What are some potential side effects of psychological maltreatment?
Low self-esteem, depression, suicide, lying, misbehavior
What is resiliance?
The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological and/or physical damage
What is heteronomous morality?
Piaget's first stage of moral development in which children see rules as invariant and unchangeable.
What is the incipient cooperation stage of moral development?
Children become more social and learn rules and can play according to a shared conception of rules
What is the autonomous cooperation stage of moral development?
Children become aware that rules can be modified if the people playing agree
What are Piaget's three stages of moral development? What ages correspond to each?
1. Heteronomous Morality (4 to 7 years)
2. Incipient Cooperation Stage (7 to 10 years)
3. Autonomous Cooperation Stage (beginning at 10 years)
What produces prosocial behavior?
What is prosocial behavior?
any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
How is prosocial behavior learned?
Through reinforcement and models
What is empathy?
Understanding what another individual feels
As a child's ability to monitor and regulate emotional and cognitive responses increases, what can grow?
What are two approaches to morality?
Social Learning and Genetic Approaches
What is aggression?
The intentional injury or harm to another person
What us emotional self-regulation?
Adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
What is instrumental aggression?
It is motivated by a desire to obtain a concrete goal
What is relational aggression?
Nonphysical aggression intended to hurt another person's feelings
What does Freud attribute to the roots of aggression?
Sexual and aggressive instincts
What does Lorenz attribute to the roots of aggression?
Fighting instinct found in all animals
What do sociobiologists attribute to the roots of aggression?
Strengthening the species drives aggression
What is the social learning approach?
Learning and observation shapes aggression, and exposure to aggressive models leads to aggression
True or False? Children's TV programs contain higher levels of violence than other programs.
What is one way to reduce aggression in children?
Observation of nonaggressive models
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 18
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 19
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 1
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 2
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