65 terms

Biology Final Exam 57-59

Ecological system with defined boundaries. Have both biotic and abiotic components
Earth is a
Closed system with respect to matter, but open with respect to energy
Energy flows through
Ecological communities from producers to consumers
Four compartments of the physical environment
1. Atmosphere
2. Oceans
3. Freshwaters
4. Land
A thin layer of gases surrounding the Earth
The air is made up of _____ percent nitrogen
Over long time scales most materials that cycle through the 4 compartments end up in the oceans
Concentrations of nutrients are very
Low in most ocean waters
Rivers, lakes, and groundwater
Waters moves _____ through freshwater compartments
Mineral nutrients enter fresh water through
Weathering of rock
Elements move slowly on land
Land is connected to atmosphere by
Organisms that can convert both ways
Chemical solutions can be carried by
Solar energy drives nearly all
Ecosystem processes on Earth
Solar energy enters ecosystems via
Plants and other photo-synthesizers
Open oceans have ____ rate of primary productivity
Open oceans contribute the
Greatest percentage because they are really big
Human activities modify
Energy flow
Hydrologic Cycle is the cycling of
Water through the four compartments
The hydrologic cycle is powered by the
Carbon Cycle
All organisms contain carbon and their energy comes from carbon compounds
Most carbon is stored in
Rocks and minerals
Nitrogen Cycle
Hard to get a hold of. Bacteria use it
Phosphorus Cycle
Is important to plants
Ecosystems provide
Food and service that aren't found any other way. Good include food, clean water, clean air
Eliminate subsidies
Result in damage to ecosystems, overuse of fertilizers, and reduced profitability of agriculture in developing
Conservation Biology
Is an applied science, devoted to protecting and managing Earth's biodiversity
Conservation Biology is guided by 3 principles which are
1. Evolutions is the process that unites all of biology
2. The ecological world is dynamic
3. Humans are apart of ecosystems
"Biodiversity" has meanings
1. Amount of genetic variation
2. Species richness
3. Ecosystem diversity
Species is richness is ______ diversity
Ecosystem diversity is _____ diversity
We derive enormous psychological benefit from
Watching and interacting with other species [Aesthetic benefits]
Problems with predicting how many/which species will be extinct
1. We don't know how many species live on Earth
2. We don't know where all the species live
3. It's difficult to determine when a species is actually becoming extinct
4. We rarely know all the connections among species
Human Activities that threaten survival of other species
1. Habitat destruction
2. Introduction of exotic species
3. Overexploitation
4. Climate change
Habitat Loss is the
Most important cause of endangerment in the world
Small patched can only support
Small populations
Edge Effects
As patch size decreases it has more "Edge"
Some exotic become
Invasive (Too many of them)
Brown tree snake arrived on
Guam in air cargo in the 40's and has caused 15 different types of bird's extinctions
Established protected ares is an
Important part of efforts to preserve diversity
Priority System is to
Pick which systems to protect
Biodiversity hotspots are the ones with
The most diversity of animals per area
Restoration ecology
Methods are being developed to restore degraded habitats to a more natural state
Fynbos are
Species rich areas
A specific fynbo is the one in
Western cape providence, 2/3 of western cape comes from fynbos
Ecological Community
Consists of all the species that coexist and interact in a define area
Communities may differ in
Species Richness (Number of species)
Trophic Cascade
Progression of indirect effects across successive trophic levels
New predator could change the
Trophic Cascade
Ecosystem Engineers
Organisms that build such structures. They change the system
Keystone Species
A species that exerts a large influence on a community that is out of proportions
Alpha Diversity
Diversity within a single community or habitat
Alpha diversity is measured by
Counting species (Species Richness)
Beat Diversity
Between-Habitat diversity, change in species composition from one community to another
Gamma Diversity
Regional diversity over a range of communities in a geographic region
Gamma Diversity equals
Alpha diversity of each community combined with beta diversity from other communities
The species-area relationship
More species the bigger the area is, the smaller the area the less species it can fit
Island Biogeography was developed by
Robert MacArthur and E.D. Wilson,
Island Biogeography was developed to
Explain why islands have fewer species than from that of the mainland
Species Pool
Number of species in the area providing the immigrants
Rates of immigration and extinction are influenced by 2 factors
1. Distance from the species pool
2. Size of the island
A disturbance is a
Abiotic event that changes the survival rate of one or more species
Patterns change in community composition following disturbance is called
Climax Community
Predictable progression until it becomes average