The loosely defined culture that pervades prisons and has its own norms, rules, and language
Inmate Social Code
An unwritten code of behavior, passed from older inmates to younger ones, which serves as guidelines for appropriate inmate behavior within the prison
"The Prison Community"
Book by Donald Clemmer which presents a detailed sociological study of life in a maximum security prison
the process whereby inmates take on the folkways, norms, customs, and general culture of the penitentiary. The more prisoners follow this, the less likely they will reform on the outside. The traditional prison culture is now being replaced by by violent gang culture
Women Prison Construction
4 built between 1930 and 1950. 34 more built in 1980s because of higher crime rates
Smaller. Nonsecure institutions similar to college dorms. Suffer lack of training, health, treatment, educational facilities.
younger. typically under 30. more than half are high school drop outs. troubled families. substance abuse problems. don't present immediate physical danger. Make believe families.
Riots and other forms of collective violence occur when prison officials make an abrupt effort to take control of the prison and limit freedoms.
the view that collective violence in prison may be caused by mismanagement, lack of strong security, and inadequate control by prison officials.
As the prison population continues to climb, unmatched by expanded capacity, prison violence may increease.
The legal practice of allowing prison administrators a free hand to run the institution even if correctional practices violate inmates' constitutional rights; ended with the onset of the prisoners' right movement in the 1960s.
Through a slow process of legal review, the courts have granted inmates a number of civil rights, including the rights to receive mail and medical benefits and to practice their religion.
Inmates skilled in legal matters that help other inmates prepare legal briefs and appeals
cruel and unusual punishment
Physical punishment or punishment that is far in excess of that given to people under similar circumstances and therefore is banned by the 8th amendment. The death penalty has so far not been considered cruel and unusual if it administered in a fair and nondiscriminatory fashion.
shields reasonable law enforcement officers from civil liability if they believe their actions to be lawful
early release from prison, subject to conditions set by the parole board. Currently 800,000 on it right now
Latin for "father of the country." Refers to the philosophy that the government is the ultimate guardian of all children or disabled adults
Seventeenth-century laws in England that bound out vagrants and abandoned children as indentured servants to masters. Were passed to colonial America and passed in Virginia and Connecticut and Massachusetts 1678.
Late nineteenth-century reformers in America who developed programs for troubled youths and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system. New York House opened, Jan 1, 1825 and had over 1,678 kids were sent there.
Childern's Aid Society
A child saving organization begun by Charles Loring Brace; it took children from the streets in large cities and placed them with farm families on the prairie