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74 terms

IDS 159

Final Exam Flashcards
STUDY
PLAY
Enculturation
the social process by which culture is transmitted between generations; learned by example
Education
acquisition of a formal body of knowledge often in a place called a school
Critical Thinking
deciding rationally what or what not to believe/careful and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment
Life Chances
individuals ability to fulfill their potential in society. Easier when born higher up in the 'system'
Outliers
externalities that have a direct affect on a person's life chances
KIPP Program
10,000 hours in a short time and no summers because the people with low income would lose knowledge
Cultural Bias
the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture. Occurs when people of a culture make assumptions about conventions, including conventions of language, notation, proof and evidence
Social Stratification
unequal distribution of goods and services; becomes a source of conflict.
Open (achieved) System
earn your place; U.S.A.
Closed (ascribed) System
born in place; Hindu caste system
Prestige
social honor (hindu caste system)
Power
when you can get resources to do what you want them to do
Wealth
accumulation of material resources or access to the resources
The American Dream
you can achieve anything if you work hard enough for it
Religion (textbook)
the cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with ultimate problems (meaning of life, death, good and evil, values) of human existence
Religion (fischer's)
social process that helps to order society and provide its members with unity, meaning, peace of mind and a degree of control
Human Universal
something you find in all cultures
Cosmology
set of principles or beliefs about the creation of universe, origin of society, relation of individuals to each other, human kind to nature, nature of life and earth
Unity
creates order and meaning, establishes moral codes, position in society and profound loss (death)
Routine
players attempt to reduce their chance of feeling uncertain, brings order to the world, turns into a ritual, grow out of good performances
Taboo
opposite of rituals' comes from Polynesian word meaning prohibition, breaking leads to bad luck, grow out of bad performances
Fetishes
material objects believed to embody supernatural power that can aid or protect the owner, ex: good luck charms
Sexism
discriminating against someone based on sex
Gender discrimination
discrimination against gender identity
Gender Stratification
unequal distribution of rewards between men and women; males are dominant (privileged)
Misogyny
hatred towards women
Misanthrope
hatred of people
Patriarchy
political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status including basic human rights
Matriarchy
political system ruled by women in which men have inferior social and political status including basic human rights
Patriarchy Language
male=normative (his, he, etc.)
men:bachelor; Mr. (can't tell if married or not)
women: spinster, widow; Miss (single) Mrs. (married) Ms. (can't tell if married or not)
Feminism
the theory or believe in the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes
Sapir-whort hypothesis
language constrains thought. Identity is used as an insult. Ex: ethnicity, "playing like a girl" "that's so gay" "you're being Jewish" "that's retarded"
Cohort
people born within the same life=span that go through major life activities together
Baby Boomer I
→Collective trauma
→Assassinations of MLK, JFK and RFK
→Political un-rest
→Vietnam war
→Walk on moon
→Anti-war protests
Baby Boomers II (Generation Jones)
*'Anonymous generation'
→Watergate
→Nixon resigning
→Cold War
→Oil embargo
→Stressed government
→Huge expectations
Generation X
→Not as many babies
→Challenger explosion
→AIDS
→Safe sex
→Fall of Berlin wall
→Single-Parent Family
→Divorce and 'mothers' in work force
→Emotion Security
→Independent
→Informal
→Entrepreneurial
Generation Y
→Internet
→Most 'child-centric'
→Patriotic
→'Tech-savvy'
→Self-confident: 'cocky' in workplace
→Helicopter parent- tries to control what their child does
Age Cycle
Infancy→Childhood→Adolescence→Adulthood→Old Age
Kinship
the complex system of culturally defined relationships based on marriage, and birth. Can also be socially defined
Descent
functions to guide inheritance, group loyalty, and the formation of families and extended kinship groups
Patrilineal Descent
links relatives through males only
Matrilineal Descent
links relatives through females only
Bilateral Descent
links a person to kin through both males and females simultaneously
Monogamy
married to one person at a time
Polygamy
multiple spouses
Polygyny
one man with multiple wives. Benefits of this can be having more kids, helps with labor, also shows high status in many countries
Polyandry
one woman with multiple husbands. Benefit can be to limit the amount of children in the family
Serial Monogamy
multiple spouses, but one at a time, U.S. has this
Sex
a physical condition related to chromosomes and external sex characteristics. Male, Female, intersex.
Intersex
4% of population. Born with chromosomes of both sexes, external sex characteristics inconsistent with the typical definition of male and female
Gender
all the traits a culture assigns to men and women. NOT sexuality. Scale from masculine to feminine.
Cisgender
someone who's gender identity generally matches w/ what is assigned culturally for their sex
Transgender
identity doesn't match up to physical
Transexual
someone who's gender identity consistently differs from assigned sex - some choose to undergo reassignment surgery. Transexual is an "umbrella term"
Gender Roles
tasks and activities that a culture assigns to men and women. Example: certain jobs
Gender stereotypes
Male: stronger, protectors, reckless, egocentric/selfish, stoic/cold, silent, providers
Females: weaker, damsel in distress, patient/careful, caring/nurturing, emotional/crybabies, dramatic, needy, takers, chatty, understanding
Sexual dimorphism
marked differences in male and female biologies other than sex characteristics. ex: weight, height, strength
Stereotype threat
when a stereotype is internalized to the point where it effects the person's performance
Sexuality
the patterned way in which a person views or expresses the sexual component of his or her personality. A person's habitual, sexual attraction to and activities with persons of the opposite sex (heterosexual), the same sex (homosexual), or both sexes (bisexual). Also can be described as "Sexual Orientation"
Lesbian
a way of life for persons who desire and have sex with people of the same sex, women in this case
Gay
a way of life for persons who desire and have sex with people of the same sex, men in this case
Bisexual
a person's habitual sexual attraction to and sexual activity with persons of both sexes
Queer
in contemporary usage - used as an inclusive unifying term. Can be taken positively or negatively.
Questioning
trying to figure out where they fall on the spectrum
Ally
supportive of the LGBT community
Heteronormative
base assumption that heterosexuality is the norm.
Homophobia
the fear or hatred toward LGBT community. An ethnocentric reaction of heterosexuals who believe their sexual orientation is natural or the best.
Disability
a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities
TAB
temporarily-able-bodied
People 1st language
used to show that a disability is something that is a part of a person not something that defines who they are. If this language isn't used other words can be considered dehumanizing and can lead to stereotypes.
Invisible disability
disability you cannot see, people sometimes try to keep this hidden. Ex: the spoon theory
Public speech
how we talk in public, refraining from using disrespectful speech because you never know who is listening
Globalization
the accelerating links between nations and people in a world system connected economically, politically, and by modern media and transportation
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
written in response to WWII and Holocaust, most translated book in the world