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Unit 4: Quantum model of the Atom
Terms in this set (53)
Noble gas notation
Shorthand notation: find the noble gas right before the element you are working on. write that noble gas in brackets. Write the rest of the EC for that element.
discovered that electrons can act as both a wave and a particle.
Heisenberg says that it's impossible to determine both the ____________________ and __________________ of an electron.
electron cloud model
It's these two scientists that start a new model of the atom - the quantum model of the atom, aka the _________________ _________________ ______________
Heisenberg Uncertainty principle
The position and momentum of a moving object cannot simultaneously be measured and known exactly
The location given for an electron tells where it is only probably found _________ of the time.
To find the probable location of an electron, Schroedinger treated the electron as if it traveled as a _____________.
Orbitals; electron cloud
Schroedinger's wave equation showed electrons probable location known as ___________________.
The motion of the electron covers an area called an _________________ __________________.
a small, specific amount of energy that is lost or gained by an atom as an electron moved to a higher or lower energy level.
the lowest energy state of electrons in an atom
an electron that has gained enough energy to move to an empty orbital that is farther from the nucleus
This is not Bohr's idea. This orbital is a cloud like, 3-D, probability area, around the nucleus, where an electron can be found.
To "solve" Schroedinger's wave equation 4 parameters must be known. These are called ________________ _____________________
what are the 4 quantum numbers?
these four numbers are like the "______________" of an electron and may be used to ___________________ any electron (find its probable location) in an atom
main energy level occupied by the electron
the shape of the orbital
the orientation (x,y and z) of an orbital around the nucleus
The direction in which an electron is spinning.
Each principal energy level is composed of a _______________________________ level. There are the same number of sub-energy levels as the principle energy level. There are ______________ energy levels.
Angular quantum number indicates the sub-level ______________: s,p,d,f
magnetic quantum number indicates how the orbital is __________________ in space.
Each sub-energy level may have the following number of arrangements (orientations):
s has _____ orbital arrangement
p has __________ orbital arrangments
d has ____________ orbital arrangements
f has ________ orbital arrangements.
spin quantum number
indicates the spin of an electron. clockwise or counterclockwise.
each orbital can hold ______ electrons. One spinning clockwise and one spinning counterclockwise.
An energy level can have one or more of the following sublevels:
S (sphere-shaped; has __________ orbital that can hold 2e-)
P (peanut-shaped; has _______ orbitals that can hold 6e-)
D (double-dumbell-shaped; has _________ orbitals that can hold 10e-)
F (flower-shaped; has ______ orbitals that can hold 14e-)
the electrons in the outermost energy levels of an atom. electrons used during chemical bonding.
the arrangement of electrons in an atom; represents the way electrons fill in the energy levels.
electrons, much like everything else in life, tend to arrange themselves at the ______________ possible energy. In chemistry we call this the ground state electron configuration. With humans, we call it lazy.
an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital can receive it
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers (n,l,m,s)
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by a 2nd electron and all electrons in a singly occupied orbital must have the same spin
Electron configuration; orbital notation; Noble Gas notation
There are 3 different ways to show the arrangement of electrons for a particular atom
1) ____________________ ___________________
2) ________________________ _________________________
3) ____________________________ ______________ _____________________
Writing electron configurations: Using the atomic number as the total number of ____________________ you can write the electron configuration for all of the elements. The number of electrons in each sublevel is written as an _______________________
This is a way of showing the EC that also shows the spin quantum number
up or down
Arrows that either go _________ or ____________ within each orbital representing the spin being clockwise or counterclockwise.
developed 1st periodic table and arranged them in order of increasing atomic mass and created columns with elements having similar properties.
arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number thus changing the order of some of the elements and correcting discrepancies found in Mendeleev's table
Silver or white in color, lustrous (shiny). Malleable and ductile. Good conductor of heat and electricity. High melting and boiling points. high densities. many react with acids. all solids except, mercury
dull in appearance, brittle if solid, poor conductor of heat and electricity. low melting and boiling points. low densities. does not react with acids. exist in all three states of matter.
first column of the PT low melting points. low boiling points. very soft and can be cut with a knife. react vigorously with water. Become more reactive as you move down the group
reactive non-metals. reactivity decreases as you move down the group. Form diatomic (always bond with twin) molecules in their pure form.
Unreactive non-metals. complete outer electron or valence
seven; energy levels
There are ________________ periods on the periodic table. the row/period on the periodic table corresponds t the number of _________________ _____________________ of an atom
Columns correspond with the number of __________________ ___________________
electrons available to be lost, gained or shared. located in the highest energy levels. Most often these energy levels are incompletely filled. Hold atoms together in a chemical compound.
Most atoms like to have 8 electrons in their outer energy level.
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together or how "fat" an atom is. increase going right to left and increase going down.
how "quick" an atom is to react with other atoms. Increase going left to right and going down. Noble gases are not included.
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element. increase going left to right and up
how strongly an atom attracts electrons from other atoms to itself. increases going left to right and up
The distance between the nucleus and the farthest energy level of an ion. increases going right to left and down
Metals become ______________ and Non-metals become _______________
Recommended textbook explanations
Principles of Physics (International Edition)
David Halliday, Resnick, Walker
Giancoli Physics: Principles With Applications
Paul G. Hewitt
Physics (Technology Update) Volume 1
James S. Walker
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