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definite shape and volume

types of solids

crystalline and amorphous

crystalline solids

particles form a regular, repeating pattern and melt at a specific temperature

amorphous solids

particles are not arranged in a regular pattern and do not melt at a distinct temperature


definite volume, but no definite shape

particles in a liquid

packed close, but move freely around one another

surface tension and viscosity

properties of liquids


a liquid that flows slowly is said to have this type of viscosity


a liquid that flows quickly is said to have this type of viscosity


no definite shape or volume


a solid gains thermal energy and changes to a liquid


when a liquid loses thermal energy and changes to a solid


takes place when the particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas


vaporization that occurs only on the surface of the liquid


when vaporization takes place inside as well as outside of a liquid

air pressure

the boiling point of a substance depends on the ________________________ above


occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid


occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas

dry ice or frozen carbon dioxide

examples of sublimation

volume, temperature, pressure

three ways gases are measured

boyle's law

when the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of the gas decreases


increasing temperature does this to pressure

charles's law

when the temperature of a gas in increased at constant pressure, its volume increases


increasing temperature does this to volume

directly proportional

according to charles's law, volume is ________________________________ to temperature


according to boyle's law, pressure varies ________________________ with its volume

responding variable

vertical axis of a graph

manipulated variable

horizontal axis of a graph


the force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container

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