World History Chapter 22 Section 3
Terms in this set (48)
Where did people go to study, philosophize and enjoy culture of the Enlightenment?
Regular social gatherings hosted by wealthy women in Paris where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and other great intellects met to discuss ideas
One of the most influential salon hostesses who financed the project of Denis Diderot
A philosophe who created a large set of books to which scholars could contribute--he called it Encyclopedia
Who did the Enlightenment view in the Encyclopedia anger?
through newspapers, pamphlets, and songs
How did Enlightenment ideas spread?
literate middle class
Who was attracted to Enlightenment ideas?
order and reason
What were the Enlightenment ideals?
What style of art was characterized by a grand ornate design?
What palace is an example of baroque style?
When was baroque style popular? (Before OR after the Enlightenment?)
What type of art emerged during the Enlightenment?
Simple and elegant style that borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome
What term means "new classical"?
What composers dominated music before the Enlightenment?
dramatic organ and choral music
What type of music did Bach and Handel write?
What type of music emerged during the Enlightenment period?
What type of music reflected a new, lighter, and more elegant style of music?
Who were the three composers in Vienna, Austria who were the greatest figures of the classical period of music?
What type of writing emerged during the Enlightenment?
This type of writing was a lengthy work of prose fiction, with carefully crafted plots, suspense, and that explored characters' thoughts and feelings.
Who enjoyed reading novels?
Who wrote the first true English novel?
What was the name of the first true English novel about a servant girl who refuses the advances of her master?
Who wrote another English novel masterpiece?
What was the name of the novel about an orphan who travels all over England to win the hand of his lady?
monarchy with a ruler that respected the people's rights
What did Voltaire and many other philosophes believe was the best form of government?
What name was given to the monarchs who embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit?
What does despot mean?
1. Make their countries stronger
2. Make their own rule more effective
What motivated the changes brought by the enlightened despots?
Frederick II of Prussia
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria
Catherine the Great of Russia
Who were the major European enlightened despots?
Who was the king of Prussia from 1740-1786?
granted religious freedom
reformed justice system
abolished use of torture
What were the 5 main reforms Frederick II brought to Prussia?
Believed it was wrong, did nothing to end it since he needed the support of wealthy landowners
How did Frederick II view serfdom, and what did he do about it?
the first servant of the state
What did Frederick II call himself?
serve and strengthen his country
What was Frederick II's main goal?
Joseph II of Austria
Who was the most radical royal reformer?
Who was Joseph II's mother?
freedom of the press
freedom of worship
ordered peasants be paid in cash for their labor
What 5 reforms did Joseph II enact?
they were undone
What happened to Joseph II's reforms when he died?
Catherine the Great
What ruler was most admired by the philosophes?
Who did Catherine II write letters to?
abolishing torture and capital punishment
What changes did Catherine II recommend, but her commission refused to accomplish?
Whose lives did Catherine II do little to improce?
massive uprising of serfs
What prompted Catherine II to give the nobles absolute power over the serfs?
What sea did Catherine's armies win control of?
What three countries wanted control over POland?
First Partition of Poland
What act divided Poland into three pieces between Russia, Prussia, and Austria?