Sociology Exam 2
Terms in this set (34)
A social position that a person occupies
Ascribed (Social Status)
Born with/beyond own control. Examples: Sex, Race, Country of Origin
Achieved (Social Status)
earned or chosen, reflects a person's skills or efforts.
Ex: being a professional athlete, lawyer, etc.
Master Status (Social Status)
most important positions people occupy
Ex: forms important part of people's identity, effects other roles such as family, where they live, etc.
Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Ex: employee at Wendy's (status) is supposed to arrive at work on time, be clean, be polite to customers (role)
Occurs when incompatible demands are built into single status that a person occupies, problem carrying out ONE status
Ex: feeling behind in school work and stressed out means you're experiencing strain on role as a student
Occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by TWO or more statuses held at the same time.
Ex: student and employed and supervisor at work insists that you work late, it could interfere with your ability to study
The Social Construction of Reality
The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction, go to the people vs. go to the rule book
The Thomas Theorem
Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences, if people believe things are true then they are
Ex: a good diver get a score of 10 based on judges,people may disagree but judges created a reality
Ex: is drinking really a sin? it is if we say it is
The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings, how people create reality
Ex: Symbolic Interaction: "We don't see things as they are, we see things as we are"
Ex: usually study everyday interaction by breaking the rules
The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performances.
Front stage: all done up and ready, many people see
Back stage: not many people see, brushing teeth, showering, etc.
Civil inattention: like when you ignore the fact that someone is in a wheelchair
Impression management:consciously or unconsciously persuading someone's perception about event, object or person
Nonverbal Communication: facial expression, eye contact, and touching
Product of reality construction, provides a way to express an opinion without being serious, relieves tension, sign of real conflict
Exists because people are involved (i.e. happy family having dinner together)
-Usually long duration
-Broad relationship, involving many activities,
-Family, friends, close relationships
Want people to use you
-Variable duration, often short term
-Narrow relationship, involving few activities
-Mean to an end
-People you work with, do business with, casual aquantences
Highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner, a bureaucracy
Rational model designed to perform complex tasks efficiently, regularly create and revise policy to increase efficiency (DMV, Colleges,/Universities, Prisons, Police Departments)
Max Weber's 6 Elements
1. Specialization of duties: you benefit, society benefits, so society is better off.
2. Hierarchy of offices
3. Rules and Regulations
4. Technical Competence: assign jobs on basis of competence, ability to do job
5. Impersonality: you don't hire just your friends and family
6. Formal, written communications
Problems of Bureaucracy
-Alienation: dehumanize those they serve through impersonal operation
-Inefficiency and Ritualism: focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organizations goals (red tape)
-Inertia: tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
-With new computer technology, privacy has declined
In a hierarchy, individuals tend to rise to their level of incompetence.
Ex: as people are promoted, they become progressively less effective because good performance in one job doesn't guarantee good performance in another.
Work expands to fill the time available for its completion, usually wait until the last minute possible
Ex: everyone turned their papers in online at the last minute before the due date
-New employees: still have same salary, same responsibilities
-Lifetime security (lifetime employment)
-Collective decision making (quality circles)
-Holistic involvement in the lives of employees
McDonaldization of Society
Non-fast food organizations mimic organizational principles of McDoalds
-Efficiency: do it quickly
-Predictability: you know what you're getting
-Uniformity: standard plan, leave nothing to chance
-Control through automation: humans are most unreliable factor
-More than a restaurant, it's a symbol and way of life
Why is sexuality important?
1. Human sexuality is an important component of every society
2. How people express their sexuality: varies from society to society, varies within a society over time
3. How we express our sexuality is learned
4. Our values and subsequent behavior are shaped by our exposure to various forces within the social environment: family, school, peers, mass media
5. How have these forces shaped our values and behavior regarding our sexuality
Experience, human, primary relationship
Feeling, object, secondary relationship
The Sexual Revolution
1960s: fostered new openness toward sexuality
-The pill, attitude of sex was part of everyone's life, married or not, double standard challenged
Extramarital sex: infidelity
-75% of men and 90% of women remain faithful during the marriages
-Men and women are almost equal in percent reporting engaging in premarital sex, broadly accepted among America's young
Teen pregnancy in US is the highest rate among other high-income countries
Is sex education in schools a solution or problem?
1. Functionalist: looks at society as a whole (what is functional or not functional about things like abortion_
3. Conflict: look at certain groups in society, who is dominant, males are dominant
4. Feminist theory: conflict oriented, looks at female/male relationships rather than society as a whole
5. Queer theory: conflict oriented, relationship between homosexuals and heterosexuals
-Re-emergence of fundamental religious groups
-Holistic health movement
-Increased concern over economic consequences of children born out of wedlock
-Backlash to sexual revolution
The Abortion Controversy
The deliberate termination of a pregnancy
-1973 Roe vs. Wade US Supreme court: able to choose abortion or not
-Pro choice: right to choose
-Pro life: should always choose life
-Circumstances of the pregnancy makes a big difference in how people see this issue (i.e. incest, rape, out of wedlock, just because, serious birth defect, etc.)
-2/3 of class agreed that it should remain a choice
-6/10 of class think abortion should be generally available
Process by which people abandon their old selves and develop new ones (voluntary or involuntary)
Involuntary resocializaiton, a place where people are isolated from rest of society for a set period of time and come under control of officials.
-Ex: prisions, mental hospitals, etc.
The Korean War POW experience
Thousands of South Korean soldiers who were captured by North Korean and Chinese soldiers during North Korean war, most are presumed dead, 560 survived
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