Linguistics Ch. 5 Word Formation

Just some key terms from The Study of Language by George Yule 4th edition
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Terms in this set (...)

Etymology
The study of the origin and history of a word.
Neologism
A new word.
Coinage
The invention of totally new terms, usually pretty rare.
Eponyms
New words based on the name of a person or a place.
Borrowing
One of the most common sources of new words in the english language, taking over words from other languages
Loan Translation/Calque
In this process, there is a direct translation of the elements of the word into the borrowing language.
Compounding
The act of joining two separate words to produce a single form. Such as bookcase, fingerprint, waterbed...
Blending
The combination of two separate forms to produce a single new term. Blending is typically accomplished by taking only the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word. Such as gasoline made from alcohol, joined and known as gasohol...
Clipping
The element of reducing a word that only has one syllable to a shorter form. Such as in facsimile down to fax.
Hypocorisims
A particularly favored way of reducing words in Australian and British English. Such as barbie for barbecue, or hankie for handkerchief.
Backformation
A word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form a word of another type (usually a verb). Such as television and televise.
Conversion
When a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction). Such as bottle and bottled
Acronyms
New words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words. Such as CD for Compact Disk
Derivation
The most common word formation. It is accomplished by means of a large number of small "bits" of the english language which are not usually given separate listings in dictionaries. Such as un-, mis-, pre-...
Prefixes
Affixes that belong at the beginning of a word. Such as un-, mis-
Suffixes
Affixes that belong at the end of a word. Such as -less, -ish.
Infix
Not normally used in English. An affix that is incorporated inside another word. Such as halleBLOODYlujah!!
Analogy
Words are formed to be similar in some way to existing words. Such as yuppie and yippie