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Terms in this set (72)
Good __________ can help reduce the chances of infection from microorganisms.
One of the most effective ways to reduce the amount of microorganisms on your hands is to
Armpit body odor is basically bacteria ____________. The bacteria digest the oils contained in sweat.
__________ survive by living on or in other organisms and feeding off of them.
A __________ is a virus, bacteria, fungi, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
__________ is a synonym for pathogen
A person who is __________ is infected with a parasite or pathogen that can be transmitted to other people.
COVID-19 is caused by what type of virus?
_________ are too small to be seen with an optical microscope (with a very few recently discovered exceptions).
Basically, the only thing _________ do is hijack cells which they then use to replicate themselves.
Viruses were not "seen" until the invention of the
A __________ is a random change in an organism's genes that can sometimes be passed onto offspring.
A __________ is made up of a strand of genetic material (DNA or RNA), surrounded by a protein coating called a capsid.
DNA stands for
RNA stands for
A pathogenic virus is one that makes its host
Flu is short for __________, which is a viral infection of the nose, throat and lungs.
Flu can be spread through __________ which spray into the air when an infected person sneezes, coughs, or even just talks.
Influenza can be caused by many different but closely related __________ (or strains).
The deadliest pandemic in the 20th century was caused by a strain of the __________ in 1918-1919.
A __________ contains viruses that have either been killed or severely weakened.
The purpose of a vaccine is to cause the development of __________ that help prevent infections.
Seasonal flu vaccines usually protect against the 3 or 4 _________ that immunologists think are most likely to spread through the population.
Most flu vaccines are made using
As part of an immune response to infection, your hypothalamus may cause you to have a
white blood cells
Which blood component is part of the immune system?
A (An) __________ is a protein that binds with a specific molecule, or antigen, found only on the invading germ.
A (An) antibody is a protein that binds with a specific molecule, or __________, found only on the invading germ.
There are three types of white blood cells: granulocytes, monocytes, and
__________ - when a high enough percentage of a population is immune to a disease to stop the disease from easily spreading.
The person credited with developing the first vaccine against smallpox was
__________ developed a way to make milk safer and the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
The __________ regulates the production of drugs in the United States.
Food and Drug Administration
FDA stands for the
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS is an acronym standing for
SARS, like COVID-19, is caused by a type of virus called a (an)
One important difference between SARS and COVID-19 is the SARS is much less
The vast majority of viruses are _________ specific.
Avian flu is a type of flu that can infect humans and originated in
Swine flu is a type of flu that can infect humans and originated in
The 1918-1919 Spanish Influenza pandemic was caused by a type of
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC stands for
A sudden increase in the number of cases of a particular disease is known as a (an)
A (An) __________ is a rapidly spreading non-endemic disease across a large region.
A (An) __________ is a rapidly spreading non-endemic disease across the world.
A (An) __________ disease is one that is normally found in a particular region or area, like malaria in the tropics.
The time between exposure to an infectious disease and the appearance of the first symptoms is known as the
World Health Organization
WHO is an abbreviation for
Edward Jenner used __________ in the first vaccine against smallpox.
Cowpox is caused by a virus similar to the one that causes smallpox, but is significantly less
Due to a world-wide vaccination program, __________ has been eradicated (no longer exists outside of labs).
People who previously had chickenpox can later develop __________ if the virus reactivates.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS stands for
__________ is the infection that causes AIDS.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV stands for
Human Immunodeficiency Virus directly attacks human __________, a type of leukocyte (which is a type of white blood cell).
People with AIDS usually die from __________, because HIV has severely damage their bodies immune system.
Though there is no __________ against HIV, scientists have developed treatments that can control it.
HIV is transmissible only through the exchange of certain
The way a pathogen moves between hosts is known as
___________ is a genetic disease that prevents human blood from clotting properly. Many people with this disease were infected with HIV through blood transfusions.
Blood __________ -- when blood from one person is put into another person with a compatible blood type.
The West Nile virus (like a number of pathogens) is passed between hosts by
A rare but dangerous complication from being infected with the West Nile virus is _________ (inflammation of the brain).
The Zika virus is mostly transmitted between hosts through
Zika infections are usually mild, but can cause a (an) __________ in a fetus when someone who is pregnant is infected.
The most effective mosquito repellents contain the chemical
The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide is more commonly known as
Ebola, like HIV, is transmissible only through the exchange of
kills people so quickly
An Ebola outbreak is unlikely to spread very far due to the fact that it
Ebola virus infections can cause a __________, which causes internal bleeding due to the effect the virus has on the circulatory system.
One way to slow or stop an infectious disease from spreading is to place people who may have it in __________ -- isolate them from all others.
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