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Exercise Physiology: CH. 13
Terms in this set (27)
The average VO2 max value for the young (e.g., 21 years old) male sedentary population is approximately
a. 22 ml • kg-1 • min-1.
b. 35 ml • kg-1 • min-1.
c. 45 ml • kg-1 • min-1.
d. 83 ml • kg-1 • min-1.
Endurance exercise training programs (e.g., 3 days/week @ 60% VO2 max for 12 weeks) typically results in a ______.
a. 1-5% improvement in VO2 max
b. 5-10% improvement in VO2 max
c. 15-25% improvement in VO2 max
d. 40-60% improvement in VO2 max
Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that the physiological variable responsible for the large variation in VO2 max across the normal (untrained) population is maximal
a. heart rate.
b. stroke volume.
c. arteriovenous O2 difference.
d. systolic blood pressure.
Heritability (i.e., genetics) determines approximately _____% of VO2 max variability in sedentary adults.
Endurance training has been shown to reduce the oxygen deficit in subjects performing a bout of submaximal exercise. This is likely due to
a. an increased maximal cardiac output.
b. increases in the number of mitochondria and capillaries.
c. a decreased resting heart rate.
d. a greater anaerobic capacity.
The heart rate and ventilatory responses to constant load submaximal exercise are lower (i.e., lower heart rate and lower minute ventilation) following an endurance training program. This training-induced adaptation is primarily due to changes in the
a. central nervous system.
b. carotid bodies.
c. trained skeletal muscles.
During the first four months of an endurance exercise training program, the initial increase in VO2 max is primarily due to
a. neural adaptations.
b. increases in stroke volume.
c. increases in maximal cardiac output.
d. Both increases in stroke volume and increases in maximal cardiac output are correct.
Which of the following factors do not contribute to the endurance exercise training-induced improvement in VO2 max?
a. increased maximal cardiac output
b. increased maximal stroke volume
c. increased maximal heart rate
d. None of these answers is correct
Endurance training results in increased mitochondrial and capillary density in muscle but has no effect on muscle glycolytic capacity. This is an example of what training principle?
d. none of these
High responders to endurance exercise training (i.e., individuals that achieve large increases in VO2 max) can achieve up to ______% improvement in VO2 max following a prolonged and intense training program.
The removal of damaged mitochondria in skeletal muscle and other cells is called
c. mitochondria endocytosis.
d. mitochondrial exocytosis.
Following several weeks of endurance exercise training, the capacity to transport glucose into skeletal muscle fibers is increased. Which of the following training-induced changes contribute to this training effect?
a. an increase in mitochondria within muscle fibers
b. the increase in the number of GLUT4 glucose transporters
c. an increase in circulating catecholamines
d. a decrease in circulating insulin
Four-to-ten weeks of anaerobic training (high intensity exercise lasting 10-30 seconds) can increase the peak anaerobic capacity by ______ across individuals.
The increase in VO2 max that occurs following 16 months of endurance exercise training results from
a. an increase in the maximal a-vO2 difference.
b. an increase in maximal cardiac output.
c. an increase in the maximal heart rate.
d. both an increase in the maximal a-vO2 difference and an increase in maximal cardiac output are correct.
Following an acute bout of endurance exercise training, the rise in the activity of calcinuneurin, calmodulin kinase, and AMP kinases occurs within _____ following the exercise session.
Following an acute bout of endurance exercise training, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis occurs within _____ following the completion of the exercise session.
Endurance exercise training results in an increase in mitochondria volume within skeletal muscle fibers. The process of synthesizing mitochondria in cells is called ______.
b. mitochondrial biogenesis
c. mitochondrial proteostasis
d. none of these answers is correct
The principle of specificity of training refers to the fact that exercise training is specific to
a. the muscles involved in the activity.
b. the fiber types recruited.
c. the principal energy system (i.e., aerobic vs. anaerobic) involved in the activity.
d. all of these are correct.
Which of the following physiological factors does NOT contribute to the endurance exercise training-induced increase in the maximal a-vO2 difference?
a. increased mitochondria volume in the muscle
b. increased capillaries in the muscle
c. increased hemoglobin in the blood
d. increased muscle blood flow
The enhanced capacity of the trained muscle to use fatty acids as a fuel results in
a. increased uptake of fatty acids.
b. decreased utilization of muscle glycogen.
c. sparing of blood glucose.
d. all of these answers are correct.
Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to the endurance exercise training-induced improvement in stroke volume during exercise?
a. increased end-diastolic volume
b. increased peripheral resistance
c. increased cardiac contractility
d. decrease in total peripheral resistance
Which of the following endurance training adaptations does NOT result in lower lactate production in the contracting muscles?
a. increased glycogen utilization
b. increased H4 form of LDH
c. increased mitochondrial uptake of pyruvate
d. decreased pyruvate formation
Which of the following training adaptations does NOT occur in skeletal muscles following 4-10 weeks of anaerobic exercise training?
a. increased muscle buffer capacity
b. increased activities of myokinase and creatine phosphokinase
c. increased activities of key glycolytic enzymes
d. None of these answers is correct
Which of the following factors DO NOT contribute to the decline in VO2 observed during 84 days of detraining?
a. A decrease in maximal heart rate
b. A decrease in the maximal arterial-venous O2 difference
c. A decrease in maximal stroke volume
d. None of these is correct
Which of the following factors DO NOT contribute to the endurance exercise training-induced increases in fat metabolism during exercise?
a. slower blood flow in muscle
b. increased fat storage in the liver
c. increased FFA transporters
d. increased beta oxidation enzymes
Which of the following endurance training adaptations assist in maintaining acid-base balance during exercise?
a. increased mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle
b. increased M4 form of LDH
c. increased glycolytic capacity
d. decreased beta oxidation capacity
Which of the following statements are true about the effect of endurance training or detraining on mitochondria volume in human skeletal muscle?
a. Five weeks of endurance training can increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume by two times about normal.
b. Seven days of detraining can reduce mitochondrial volume by 50% below the trained level.
c. After a period of detraining, approximately 4 weeks of retraining is required to regain the lost mitochondrial volume.
d. All of these are true.
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