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36 terms

Hatcher Musculoskeletal

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Musculoskeletal Exam includes
Bone, Joints, Muscles, Tendons, Ligaments
Joint Motions
Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Internal rotation, external rotation, circumduction
Flexion
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones/limbs
Extension
act of stretching or straightening out a flexed limb
Abduction
Away from the body. (Hitler abducted people)
Internal rotation
rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
External rotation
turning outward, away from the midline of the body
Circumduction
moving bone or limb in a circle
Examination of Musculoskeletal Exam includes
Inspection, Palpation, ROM evaluation, Muscle strength
Inspection in Musculoskeletal exam
look for swelling, redness, discoloration, anything abnormal,
Palpation in Musculoskeletal exam
tenderness, heat, nodules, effusions (fluid build up)
ROM evaluation
range of motion, see if joints move through normal ROM
Bursitis
Over-use syndrome. bursa are sacks that lie in between muscles and joint spaces provide cushioning. inflammation of the bursa
Subacromial bursa
bursa that cushions the shoulder joint. below the acromion. becomes depressed when the arm is elevated. can't raise their arm to head if they have a bad subasprinatus bursa
Bicep tendonitis
inflammation of the bicep tendon. applying pressure will hurt.
olecranion bursitis
common. doesn't cause much pain but it can become edema. Truck drivers get this in their left arm.
Gout
Inflammation of joints due to the deposit of sodium urate crystals. any flare up causes damage to the joint.
Tophaceous
Nodules caused by accumulation of uric acid and destruction of the joints
Fibromyalgia
Chronic pain syndrome. no blood tests, scans, or anything to diagnosis this.
Scoliosis
Abnormally formed spine that forms with a curvature. common in teenage girls. If occurring in obese or arthritic patients, will be bad/painful.
Dextroscolosis
curving to the right
Levoscolsis
curing to the left.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoimmune conditions. tissues are attacked by antibodies. mostly the synovial membranes. chronic inflammatory arthritis. Over time, fingers will deviate to the ulnar side.
Swan neck deformity
deformed position of the finger, in which the joint closest to the fingertip is permanently bent toward the palm while the nearest joint to the palm is bent away from it (DIP hyperflexion with PIP hyperextension). common in rheumatoid arthritis
Boutonniere deformity
Knuckle looks as if it is being pushed thru a buttonhole. Includes flexion of proximal interphalangeal joint with compensatory hyperextension of distal interphalangeal joint. Common in rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoarthritis
Slow wear-and-tear on joints. not inflammatory arthritis like gout. have acute flare ups. Use cortisone or NSAIDs. crepitus and heberden's nodes can occur.
crepitus
Cracking of joints. , grating or crackling sensation or sound
heberden's nodes
hard or bony swellings in distal interphalangeal joints. indicate osteoarthritis
Large osteophyte accumulation
in osteoarthritis. excess bone growth around the joints.
Osteoarthritis of the spine
Lipping and spurs. can see on x-rays
lipping
overgrowth of cartilage around edges of joints; looks like candle dripping
spurs
calcified lippings
Dupuytren's contracture
a fixed flexion contracture of the hand where the fingers bend towards the palm and cannot be fully extended (straightened). shortening and thickening of flexible tendon. starts in the digits.
Joint Effusion
f, swelling from excess FLUID in joint capsule. decreases ROM
Arthrocenetsis of knee effusion
bloody. remove the blood by puncturing the skin and pulling the blood out via a syringe. do this when ligament tears and fills the knee immediately with blood. knee swells up within minutes
Ganglion cyst
a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist. usually requires no treatment.