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89 terms

AP European History: Chapter 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe

chapter 16 terms and notes
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"Age of Crisis"
what the seventeeth century is often refered to as
moral economy
the vision of a world in which community needs predominate over competition and profit
popular revolts
revolts that were extremely common caused by shortages of food or the prices of bread
absolutism
dervied from the traditional assumption of power (heirs to the throne) and the belief in the "divine right" of kings
Jean Bodin (1530-1596)
among the first to provide a theoretical basis for absolutist states; believed that only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey the government (strong central gov't); french
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
wrote Leviathan; pessimistic view of human beings: believed that people are truely evil at the root and need a string government to control them
Bishop Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)
principle advocate of "divine right of kings" in France; uses the bible to justify it
divine right of kings
the idea that the king was placed on the throne by god and therefore owed his authority to no man or group
first estate
one of the three estates in France; the clergy; 1% of the population
second estate
one of the three estates in France; the nobility; 4% of the population
third estate
one of the three estates in France; the bourgeoisie (middle class), artisans, urban workers, and peasants
the estates
a hierarchy of social orders based on rank and privilege; restored under Henry IV
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (r. 1586-1610)
laid the foundation for France becoming the strongest European power in the seventeenth century; first king of the Bourbon dynasty; converted from Calvanism to Catholicism; issued Edict of Nantes (1598); assassinated in 1610 by a fanatical monk who wanted revenge for the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes (1598)
issued by Henry IV; allowed an amount of religious toleration to the Huguenots (French Calvanists)
nobility of the sword
the old nobility who lost power under the reign of Henry IV; were not allowed to influence the royal council
nobility of the robe
new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy; they became high officials in the government and were loyal to the king
Duke of Sully (1560-1641)
finance minister whos reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy
Mercantilism
state control over a country's economy in order to achieve a favorable balancew of trade with other countries
Marie de' Medici
ruled as a regent after Henry IV's assassination for their son Louis XIII
Louis XIII (1610-1643)
put into effect what was to happen in Louis XIV's reign; regency was full of corruption and eventually exiled his regent mother; Cardinal Richelieu was with him his entire reign
Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
laid the foundation for absolutism in France; was a plitique; created the intendant system
politique
one who places political issues ahead of religious principles
intendant system
creaded by Richelieu; used to weaken the nobility; replaced local officials with civil servants (intendants) who reported directly to the king; made government more efficient and centrally controlled
Peace of Alais (1629)
Huguenots lost their fortified cities and protestant armies; were still allowed to practice Calvanism; issued by Richelieu
Louis XIV (r. 1643- 1715)
the "sun king"; quintessential absolute ruler in European History; personified the idea that soverignty of the state resides in the ruler; strong believer in divine right of kings; "L' etat, c'est moi"; helped France become undisouted major power; longes reign in European history
"L' etat, c'est moi"
"I am the state"; quote of Louis XIV
Fronde (1640's)
a French Civil War; the revolution of nobles against Cardinal Mazarin when Louis XIV was a child; Louis never forgot humiliation and vowed to control the nobility
Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661)
controled France while Louis XIV was a child; caused nobles to revolt agaisnt him creating the Fronde
corvee
forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
Versailles Palace
palace built under the reign of Louis XIV; with its baroque architecture the palaces the most impressive in all of Europe; helped Louis XIV keep an eye on the nobles who were forced to stay there for part of the year
Edict of Fountainbleau (1685)
revoked Edict of Nantes; Huguenots lost their rights to practice Calvanism;
Jansenists
Catholics who held some Calvanist ideas
bullionism
a nations policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possilbe while preventing its outward flow to other countries
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1661-1683)
Louis XIV's finance minister under which French mercantilism reached its height; his goal was economic self-sufficiency for France
balance of power
a balance in which no one country would be allowed to dominate the continent since a coaliton of other countrire would rally against a threatening power
War of Devolution (First Dutch War) (1667-1668)
the event in which Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) without declaring war
Second Dutch War (1672-1678)
the event in which Louis XIV invaded the southern Netherlands as revenge for Dutch oppositiion in ther previous war
Peace of Nijmegan (1678-1679)
represented the furthest limit to the expansion of Louis XIV
War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697)
in response to another invasion of the Spanis Netherlands by Louis XIV in 1683 the League of Augsburg formed in 1686: HRE, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, Dutch Republic; war ended with status quo the same as prior to the war
War of Spanish Succesion (1701-1713)
caused by the will of Charles II (Hapsburg king) giving all Spanish territories to the grandson of Louis XIV; then a fear of a consolidation of the Spanish and French thrones
Grand Alliance
emerged in opposition to France: England, Dutch Republic, HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savory
Battle of Blenheim (1704)
a turning point in the War of Spanish Succesion begining a series of military defeats for France
Treat of Utrecht (1713)
maintained the balance of power in Europe and ended the expansionism of Lous XIV
Excorial Palace
build by Philip II to demonstrate his power
price revolution
inflation that hurt domestin industtries that were unable to export goods
Spanish Armada (1588)
when England defeated a large fleet of Spanish ships which marks the begining of the decline of the Spanish empire
Treaty of Pyranees (1659)
marked end of Spain as a great power
Baroque
art that reflected the age of absolutism; originally to teach in aconcrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and power of the Catholic church
Bernini (1598-1650)
personified baroque architecture and sculptor; statue of David
Schonbrunn
built in response to the Versailles palace
Winter Palace
built in Russia by Peter the Great which was influenced by the Versailles
Carvaggio (1571-1610)
Italian painter; perhaps first important painter of the baroque era
Peter Paul Reubens (1577-1640)
Flemish painter
Diego Velazquez (1599-1660)
Spanish painter; perhaps the greatest court painter of the era
J.S. Bach (1685-1750)
greatest of the baroque composers
constitutionalism
government power islimited by law; there is a selicate balance between the power of goevernment and the rights and liberties of individuals
gentry
wealthy landonwers in the countryside who dominated politics in the House of Commons
House of Commons
Englands lower house in Parliament
Stuart Dynasty
ruled england for most of the seventeenth century
James I (James VI of Scotland) (r. 1603-1625)
english king who believed strongly in the divine right of kings and absolutism; he twice disloved parliament over tax issues
Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
son of James I and also claomed divine right of kings
Petition of Right (1628)
parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return for granting tax increases
ship money
all countries now required to pay to outfit ships where before only coastal communities had paid
English Civil War
the event occuring when Charles tried to arrest several Puritans in Parliament but a crown of 4,000 came the their defense; caused Charles to declare war in 1642 against his opponents in the parliament
Cavaliers
supported the king in the English Civil War
Roundheads
opposed the king in the English Civil War (Calvanists)
Oliver Cromwell
military leader of the Roundheads who led the New Model Army to victory in 1649
Pride's Purge (1648)
elements of the New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from parlianemt leaving a "rump parliament" with only 1/5 of the members remaining
Levellers
radical religiious revolutionaries; sought social and political reforms and a more egalitarian society
Diggers
denied Parliants authority and rejected private ownership of land
Quakers
believed in an "inner light," a divine spark that exists within each person; pacifists
The Interregnum (1649-1660)
rule without king under Oliver Cromwell; the Puritans and army ruled
The Protectorate (1653-1659)
Oliver Cromwell, lord protector; a dictatorship
Charles II (r. 1660-1685)
restored onto the english throne in 1660 after Cromwells rules
Clarendon Code (1661)
instituted by monarchists and Anglicans to drive out all Puritans out of both political and religious life
Test Act of 1673
excluded those unwilling to recieve the sacrament of the Church of Angland from voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, or assembling for meetings
Habeas Corpus Act (1679)
installed when the parliament sought to limit Chales power
James II (r. 1685-1688)
sought to return England to Catholicism; only reigned three years
Glorious Revolution (1688)
the final act on the struggle for political sovereighnty in England; James II was forced to abdicate the throne
William and Mary
declared joint sovereigns by parliament
Bill of Rights (1689)
England became a constitutional monarchy
John Locke (Second Treatise of Covol Government)
stated that the people create the government to pretect their "natural rights" of life, liberty, and property
Toleration Act of 1689
granted the right to worship for pretestant non-conformists (not for catholics, jews, or unitarians)
Act of Settlement (1701)
states that if King William or his sister in-law Anne died without children then the crown would pass to the granddaughter of James I, the Hanoverian electress dowager or to her protestant heirs; Stuarts no longer in line for succession
Act of Union (1707)
united Britan and Scotland into Great Britan
Robert Walpole
the first Prime Minister in British history
stadtholder
governor
Amsterdam
became the banking and commercial center of Europe
Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1611- 1632)
reorganized the Swedish government