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AP Human Geography Ch. 4 Cultural Geography

Cultural Basics Language Religion Ethnicity Popular Culture Folk Culture If you find something wrong with a term or definition, please tell me.
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Syncretic
Traditions that borrow from both the past and present
Buddhism
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people -- such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization
Ethnic neighborhood
An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
Toponym
Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams
Cultural Complex
The group of traits that defines a particular culture
Language Extinction
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people
Cultural Geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space
Acculturation
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another
Cultural Imperialism
The dominance of one culture over another
Cultural Trait
The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture
Culture
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government
Custom
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group
Ethnic Cleansing
The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region by either forced migration or genocide
Denomination
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant beliefs
Monotheism
The worship of only one god
Diaspora
People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity
Ecumene
The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans
Universalizing Religion
Religion that seeks to untie people from all over the globe
Animism
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers
Ethnic religion
Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts
Language Family
A collection of many languages, all of which cam from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics
Ethnicity
Refers to a group of people who share a common identity
Race
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics
Christianity
The world's most widespread religion. A monotheistic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide
Folk Culture
Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed
Literacy
The ability to read and write
Ghetto
A segregated ethnic area within a city
Minority
A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region
Environmental Determinism
A Doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions
Hinduism
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system
Indo-European Family
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people
Caste System
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth
Islam
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one god, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Creole
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it
Polytheism
The worship of more than one god
Cultural Hearth
Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose
Language Group
A set of languages with relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
Lingua Franca
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication
Local religion
Religions that are spiritually bound to particular regions
Global Religion
Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe
Missionary
A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented
Esperanto
A constructed international language incorporating aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create a universal means of communication
Genocide
A premeditated effort to kill everyone form a particular ethnic group
Multicultural
Having to do with many cultures
Official Language
Language in which all government business occurs in a country
Pidgin
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place of religious importance
Polyglot
A multilingual state
Pop Culture
Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change
Fundamentalism
The strict adhere to a particular doctrine
Romance Languages
Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian
Evangelical Religion
Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system
Shaman
The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician, and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture
Sino-Tibetan Family
Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is compromised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean
Dialect
Geographically distinct versions of a single language that very somewhat from the parent form
Tradition
A cohesive collection of customs within a cultural group
Artifact
Any item that represents a material aspect of culture
Isoglosses
Geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet
Cultural Extinction
Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of these
Transculturation
The expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, and other related processes