66 terms

PSYC 355: Ch 10-13, SPA1

propinquity effect
the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
mere exposure effect
the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it
social exchange theory
the idea that people's feelings about a relationship depend on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else
comparison level
people's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to received in a particular relationship
comparison level for alternatives
people's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to received in an alternative relationship
equity theory
the idea that people are happiest with relationship in which the rewards and costs experienced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal
companionate love
intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person but do not experience passion or arousal in the person's presence
passionate love
an intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair
evolutionary approach to love
theory derived from evolutionary biology that holds that men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other because this maximizes their chances of reproductive success
evolutionary psychology
the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection
attachment styles
the expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants
secure attachment style
an attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked
avoidant attachment style
an attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; find it difficult to develop intimate relationships
anxious/ambivalent attachment style
an attachment style characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety
investment model
the theory that people's commitment to a relationship depends not only on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparison level and their comparison level for alternatives but also on how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
exchange relationships
relationships governed by the need for equity (i.e. an equal ratio of rewards and costs)
communal relationships
relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs
intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person
hostile aggression
aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain
instrumental aggression
aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain
the instinct towards life, posited by Freud
an instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions, according to Freud
an area in the core of the brain that is associated with aggressive behaviors
chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive impulses
a hormone associated with aggression
frustration-aggression theory
the idea that frustration - the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal - increases the probability of an aggressive response
relative deprivation
the perception that you have less than you deserve, less than what you have been led to expect, or less than what people similar to you have
aggressive stimulus
an object that is associated with aggressive responses and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression
social learning theory
the idea that we learn social behavior by observing others and imitating them
ways of behaving socially that we lear implicitly from our culture
the notion that blowing off steam relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior
hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group
a generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members
unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group
out-group homogeneity
the perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are
illusory correlation
the tendency to see relationships between events that are actually unrelated
ultimate attribution error
the tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people
stereotype threat
the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype
blaming the victim
the tendency to blame individuals for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place
self-fulfilling prophecy
the case whereby people 1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which 2) influences how they act towards that person, which 3) causes that person to behave in a way that is consistent with people's original expectations
realistic conflict theory
the idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination
the tendency for individuals. when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
institutionalized racism
racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
institutionalized sexism
sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
normative conformity
the tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance
modern racism
outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes
mutual interdependence
the situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them
jigsaw classroom
a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class
hostile sexism
type of sexism; stereotypical views of women that suggest that women are inferior to men (i.e. they are less intelligent)
benevolent sexism
type of sexism; hold stereotypically positive views of women
satisfying relationships, flow, helping others
three things that make people happy
highly desired state that occurs when people are "lost" in a task that is challenging but attainable
implementation intentions
people's specific plans about where,when, and how they will fulfill a goal
mutual interdependence, common goal, equal status, interpersonal contact, multiple contacts, social norms of equality
six conditions that will reduce stereotyping
intimacy, passion, decision/commitment
three components to a relationship, according to Sternberg
biosocial construction theory
theory that humans evolve to surrounding culture
bystander effect
tendency of a bystander to be less likely to help in an emergency if other people are present
pluralistic ignorance
misunderstanding of other's views; mistaken impression that because no one is acting concerned, there's no reason to be alarmed
negative-state relief hypothesis
the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress
urban overload hypothesis
people living in big cities are bombarded with stimulation; keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed
notice, interpret, assume, know, decide
five steps to responding to an emergency
diffusion of responsibility
each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decrease as the number of witnesses increases
identifiable victim effect
putting individual faces and identities helps call people to action
affect, cognition, behavior
three parts of prejudice
availability heuristic
people predict the frequency of an event based on how easily an example can be brought to mind
representativeness heuristic
people judge the frequency of a hypothesis by considering how much the hypothesis resembles available data