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propinquity effect

the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends

mere exposure effect

the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it

social exchange theory

the idea that people's feelings about a relationship depend on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else

comparison level

people's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to received in a particular relationship

comparison level for alternatives

people's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to received in an alternative relationship

equity theory

the idea that people are happiest with relationship in which the rewards and costs experienced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal

companionate love

intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person but do not experience passion or arousal in the person's presence

passionate love

an intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair

evolutionary approach to love

theory derived from evolutionary biology that holds that men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other because this maximizes their chances of reproductive success

evolutionary psychology

the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection

attachment styles

the expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants

secure attachment style

an attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked

avoidant attachment style

an attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; find it difficult to develop intimate relationships

anxious/ambivalent attachment style

an attachment style characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety

investment model

the theory that people's commitment to a relationship depends not only on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparison level and their comparison level for alternatives but also on how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it

exchange relationships

relationships governed by the need for equity (i.e. an equal ratio of rewards and costs)

communal relationships

relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs


intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person

hostile aggression

aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain

instrumental aggression

aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain


the instinct towards life, posited by Freud


an instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions, according to Freud


an area in the core of the brain that is associated with aggressive behaviors


chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive impulses


a hormone associated with aggression

frustration-aggression theory

the idea that frustration - the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal - increases the probability of an aggressive response

relative deprivation

the perception that you have less than you deserve, less than what you have been led to expect, or less than what people similar to you have

aggressive stimulus

an object that is associated with aggressive responses and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression

social learning theory

the idea that we learn social behavior by observing others and imitating them


ways of behaving socially that we lear implicitly from our culture


the notion that blowing off steam relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior


hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group


a generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members


unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group

out-group homogeneity

the perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are

illusory correlation

the tendency to see relationships between events that are actually unrelated

ultimate attribution error

the tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people

stereotype threat

the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype

blaming the victim

the tendency to blame individuals for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place

self-fulfilling prophecy

the case whereby people 1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which 2) influences how they act towards that person, which 3) causes that person to behave in a way that is consistent with people's original expectations

realistic conflict theory

the idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination


the tendency for individuals. when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless

institutionalized racism

racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm

institutionalized sexism

sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm

normative conformity

the tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance

modern racism

outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes

mutual interdependence

the situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them

jigsaw classroom

a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class

hostile sexism

type of sexism; stereotypical views of women that suggest that women are inferior to men (i.e. they are less intelligent)

benevolent sexism

type of sexism; hold stereotypically positive views of women

satisfying relationships, flow, helping others

three things that make people happy


highly desired state that occurs when people are "lost" in a task that is challenging but attainable

implementation intentions

people's specific plans about where,when, and how they will fulfill a goal

mutual interdependence, common goal, equal status, interpersonal contact, multiple contacts, social norms of equality

six conditions that will reduce stereotyping

intimacy, passion, decision/commitment

three components to a relationship, according to Sternberg

biosocial construction theory

theory that humans evolve to surrounding culture

bystander effect

tendency of a bystander to be less likely to help in an emergency if other people are present

pluralistic ignorance

misunderstanding of other's views; mistaken impression that because no one is acting concerned, there's no reason to be alarmed

negative-state relief hypothesis

the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress

urban overload hypothesis

people living in big cities are bombarded with stimulation; keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed

notice, interpret, assume, know, decide

five steps to responding to an emergency

diffusion of responsibility

each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decrease as the number of witnesses increases

identifiable victim effect

putting individual faces and identities helps call people to action

affect, cognition, behavior

three parts of prejudice

availability heuristic

people predict the frequency of an event based on how easily an example can be brought to mind

representativeness heuristic

people judge the frequency of a hypothesis by considering how much the hypothesis resembles available data

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