World History Chapter 19-20
Terms in this set (44)
Was an early Portuguese explorer who said he wanted to "Serve God and his majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to."
Prince Henry "the Navigator"
Was the son of Portugal's king. His first oversea exploration was in 1415 when he helped conquer the Muslim city of Ceuta in North Africa. There, he had his first glimpse of the dazzling wealth that lay beyond Europe. He then returned to Portugal determined to reach the source of these treasures in the East. He also wished to spread the Christian faith. In 1419, he founded a navigation school on the southwestern coast of Portugal. By the time he died in 1460 , the Portuguese had established a series of trading posts along western Africa's shores.
Vasco da Gama
He was a Portuguese explorer who in 1497 began exploring the east African Coast. In 1498, he reached the port of Calicut on the southwestern coast of India. He and his crew were amazed by the spices, rare silks, and precious gems that filled Calicut's shops. His remarkable voyage of 27,000 miles had given Portugal a direct sea route to India
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal
Dutch East India Company
Was a richer and a more powerful company than England's company. This company had the power to mint money, make treaties, and raise their own armies. This company eventually drove out the English and established their dominance over their region.
In 1369-1644 China had become the dominant power in Asia. In recognition of China's power, vassal states from Korea to Southeast Asia paid their Ming overlords regular tribute, which is a payment by one country to another to acknowledge the submission. The rulers were not going to allow outsiders from distant lands to threaten the peace and prosperity this dynasty had brought to China when they ended the Mongol rule. Hongwu was the first emperor of this Dynasty.
He was a peasants son who commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China in 1368. That year he became the fist Ming emperor. He continued to rule from the former Yuan capital of Nanjing in the south. He began reforms designed to restore agricultural lands devastated by ear, erase all traces of the Mongol past, and promote China's power and prosperity. His agricultural reforms increased rice production and improved irrigation. He also encouraged fish farming and growing commercial crops, such as cotton and sugar cane. He used respected traditions and institutions to bring stability to China. Later in his rule when problems developed he became a ruthless tyrant. Suspecting plots against his rule everywhere. he conducted purges of the government killing thousands of officials. His death in 1398 led to power struggle.
Was Hongwu's son who took over after his father's death. He continued many of his father's policies, although he moved the royal court to Beijing. He also had a far ranging curiosity about the outside world. In 1405, before Europeans began to sail beyond their borders, he launched the first of seven voyages of exploration. He wanted to impress the world with the power and splendor of Ming China and also wanted to expand China's tribute system.
A Chinese Muslim led all seven voyage of Yonglo's mission. His expeditions were remarkable for their size. The voyages ranged from Southeast Asia to eastern Africa. From 40-300 ships sailed in each expedition. The fleet's numbers could be up to 27,000 on some voyages. Everywhere he went he distributed gifts to show Chinese superiority. As a result, more than 16 countries sent tribute to the Ming court.
The people of Manchuria which layed North east of the Great Wall. They invaded China and the Ming Dynasty then collapsed. They seized Beijing and their leader became China's new emperor. They took a Chinese name for their new Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty which would rule for more than 260 years and expand China's borders to Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet.
A Dynasty that was originally started in the 1300's but in 1644 the Manchu's took the same name. It ruled for more than 260 years and expand China's borders to Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet. Many people rebelled against this Dynasty due to the fact that the Manchus were not Chinese. The Dynasty gained the peoples trust by keeping China's traditional Confucian beliefs and social structures. They made the country's frontiers safe and restored China's prosperity.
He became the first Qing Dynasty emperor in 1661 and ruled for some 60 years. He reduced government expenses and lowered taxes. A scholar and patron of the arts, he gained the support of intellectuals by offering them government positions. He also enjoyed the company of the Jesuits at court.
A ritual that the Dutch had to perform to be able to trade with China. This ritual involved kneeling in front of the emperor and touching one's head to the ground nine times.
Warring States Period
In 1467 a cival war left Japan in Chaos which led to this violent era. From 1467 to 1568 this period also known as the Sengoku, was led by powerful Samurai who took control of old feudal states. They offered peasants and others protection in return for their loyalty.
The term means great name but they were powerful Samurai who took control of old feudal states. They offered peasants and others protection in return for their loyalty. the became lords in new kind of Japanese feudalism. Under this system security came from this group of powerful warlords. The emperor at Kyoto became a figurehead, having a leadership title but no actual power.
He seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568. His motto was "rule the empire by force" HE sought to eliminate his remaining enemies. These included reveal daimyo as well as wealthy Buddhist monasteries aligned with them. In 1575, his 3,000 soldiers armed with muskets crushed and enemy force of samurai cavalry. This was the first time firearms had been used effectively in a battle in Japan. However he was not able to unify Japan. He committed seppuku, the ritual suicide of a samurai in 1582 when his own generals turned on him.
Nobunaga's best general continued his fallen leaders mission. He set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile. By 1590, by combining brute force with shrewd political alliances, he controlled most of the country. He did not stop with just Japan. He invaded Korea in 1592 and began a long campaign against the Koreans and their Ming Chinese alliances. He died in 1598 and his troops withdrew from Korea
Was one of Hideyoshi's strongest daimyo alliances. He completed the unification of Japan. In 1600, he defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan. Three years later, he became the sole ruler or shogun. He then moved Japan's capital to his power base at Edo, a small fishing village that would later become the city of Tokyo. Japan was unified but the daimyo still governed at the local level. To keep them from rebelling he required that they spend every other year at the capital. Even when they returned to their lands they had to leave their families behind as hostages in Edo. He founded the Tokugawa which ruled till 1867. He died in 1616.
a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603-1867. It was founded by Ieyasu Tokugawa. During this time period farmers produced more food and the population rose. It was a very structured society. The emperor had the top rank but was just a figurehead. The actual ruler was the shogun and next came the daimyo. Then Samurai and after them came the peasants and artisans and merchants were at the bottom.
A theater that townspeople would attent. Actors in elaborate costumes, using music, dance, and mime, performed skits about modern life.
A Genoese sea captain who made a daring voyage from Spain in 1492. Instead of sailing south around Africa and then east, he sailed west across the Atlantic in search of an alternate trade route to Asia and its riches. He never reached Asia. Instead he stepped onto an island in the Caribbean. His three ships were the Nina, Pinta, and Sanata Maria sailed out of the Spanish port around dawn on Auguest 3, 1492. ON October 12 1492 he reached the Caribbean but the thought he was on the East Indies.
lands that are controlled by another nation
in 1519 he led the boldest exploration yet. He convinced the king of Spain to fund his voyage into the newly discovered Pacific Ocean. With about 250 men and 5 ships he sailed around the southern end of South America and into the water of the Pacific. The fleet sailed for months with out seeing land except for small islands and they soon ran out of food. After exploring the island of Guam he and his crew finally reached the Philippines. Unfortunately, he became involved in a local war there and was killed.
A Spaniard who landed on the shore of Mexico in 1519. After colonizing several Carribbean islands, the Spanish had turned their attention to the American mainland. He marched inland looking to claim new lands for Spain. He was a conquistador.
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.
He was another conquistador who in 1532 march a small force into South America. He conquered the Incan Empire . He and his army of about 200 met with Atahualpa near the city of Cajamarca. They ambushed him and his army of 30,000 and kidnapped him. Atahualpa offered a ransom of gold and silver. He accepted the ransom but then killed him. Pizarro then marched on the Incan capital, Cuzco and captured it without a problem.
Was the Incan ruler and was ambushed by Francisco and his army. He was kidnapped and held for ransom. When Francisco accepted the ransom he still killed him and then took over the Incan empire.
mixed Spanish and Native American population.
a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Aermicas as laborers on it. Under this system natives farmed, ranched, or mined for Spanish landlords
A Frenchman who reached a gulf off the eastern coast of Canada that led to a broad river. He named i the St. Lawrence. He followed it inward until he reached a large island dominated by a mountain. He named the island Mount Real, which later became know as Montreal.
Samuel De Champlain
A French explorer who sailed p the St. Lawrence with about 32 colonists. They found Quebec, which became the base of France's colonial empire in North America, known as New France.
In 1607 about a 100 settlers from London reached the coast of Virgina. They colonists claimed the land as theirs and named the settlement after their king. The settlers at first were more interested in finding gold than in planting crops. During the first few years seven out of every ten people died of hunger, disease or battles with the Native Americans. They eventually gained a foothold in their new land and the town became England's first permanent settlement in North America. The colony started to succeed once they found tobacco.
Sought religious freedom from England's Anglican Church. They established a larger colony at nearby Massachusetts Bay. Tey wanted to build a model community that would set an example for other Christians to follow.
In 1609 An Englishman in the service of the Netherlands sailed west. He was searching for a northwest sea route to Asia. He did not find a route, he did however explore three water ways that were later named for him-The Hudson River, Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait.
The French and Indian War
a conflict between Brian and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754-1763. In North America, the British colonists with the help of the British Army, defeated the French in 1763. The French surrendered their North American holdings. As a result of the war, the British seized control of the eastern half of North America.
Atlantic Slave Trade
The buying and selling of Africans for work in the America's which turned into a huge enterprise. Between 1500-1600 nearly 300,000 Africans were transported to the Americas. During the next century that number climbed to almost 1.3 million. By the time it ended in 1870, Europeans had imported about 9.5 millions Africans to the Americas.
the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other good were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies and the colonies of the Americas.
They voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America. I twas considered the middle leg of the transatlantic trade triangle. Sickening cruelty characterized this journey. On board, Africans endured whippings and beatings from merchants, as well as diseases that swept through the vessel. Numerous Africans died from disease or physical abuses aboard the slave ships.
The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas. Ships from the Americas brought back a wide array of items that Europeans, Asians, and Africans had never seen before. They included items such as squash, tomatoes, pineapple, tobacco and cacao beans. The most important items to travel were potatoes and corn. Traffic across the Atlantic did not follow in just on direction. Europeans introduced various livestock animals into the Americas such as cattle, sheep, and pigs. Some aspects of this movement had a tragic impact on many Native Americans. Disease was just as much a part as good s and food.
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
a decline in the value of money, accompanied by a rise in the prices of goods and services
a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more good than they bought.
favorable balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more good abroad than it buys abroad.
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