ISSA Final Exam Page 1

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What is the recommended amount of fat per meal for a male client?
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All activities begin in which energy pathway?ATP/CP pathway. Doesn't matter how long or how intense the activity is, every activity starts here. Myosin ATPase cuts off a phosphate molecule from ATP and uses it for releasing energy.What is the most superficial (closest to the surface) muscle of the abdominals.External obliquesUtilizing the FITT principle, how many times a week should a beginner client workout for?3 times a week. This principle works best for beginners because it will show them how to get started.What is responsible for sensing excessive stretch to protect the muscle?Muscle spindle.Cycling your training to help account for shock, compensation, and exhaustion is an important part of periodization and refers to which principle?The GAS principle. 1. "Alarm stage" applying intense training stress. 2. "Resistance stage" muscles evolve and adapt to handling heavier loads and resist stressful weights more easily and effectively. 3. "Exhaustion stage" continually adding stress will exhaust our reserves and will cease to function at peak performance. To prevent the third stage from even happening, you need weeks of going "light"; decreasing the weight and intensity to give your body time to rest and recover.The need for different phases of training helps to prevent what?Overtraining Mix things up a bit. Don't get stuck with using the same program/workouts over and over again, which will lead to orthopedic stress. Incorporate different modes of training and experiment. A good example is cross-training, which involves performing different activities and sports to achieve a well-rounded and healthy body.Individuals with hypertension should moderate their intake of what?Salt It has been shown to increase blood pressure in sodium-sensitive individuals. Half of hypertensive individuals are sodium-sensitive.A client performs 8 reps of the seated leg press at 320 lbs. What is their estimated 1RM?400 lbs Take the weight that he lifted (320 lbs) and divide that by 80% (0.80 is the percent of max) and that = 400 lbs.What would be a symptom of overtraining?Decrease in performance There are two types of overtraining: 1. Sympathetic: mostly seen in anaerobic clients, this type of overtraining affects the sympathetic nervous system (speeds up bodily functions; increasing energy needs) and results in increased resting heart rate, increased blood pressure, loss of appetite - which leads to weight loss and decreased body mass, sleeping problems, emotional instability, and an elevated basal metabolic rate. 2. Parasympathetic: mostly seen in aerobic clients, the opposite occurs. Since this system slows down bodily functions and conserves energy, overtraining will result in early onset of fatigue, increased resting heart rate, heart rate recovery after exercise slows down, and an increase in resting blood pressure.What is primarily responsible for strength gains in beginner clients?Neural adaptations Beginners will see a spike in strength and then hypertrophy comes after. Once they have more strength, then they'll be able to lift heavier weights for more reps (6 - 12) = hypertrophy.What plane of motion does squatting take place in?Sagittal plane Any exercise where your body moves back to front or vice versa.In a client's training cycle, one day or training session is known as what?Microcycle A microcycle can last a few days to a week, where mesocycle lasts months, and a macrocycle lasts at least a year.How often should information be collected when training with a client?Once a month From the start of day one, you will need to collect accurate, up-to-date information regarding your client's health status and training progress.What is a portion control strategy for women regarding carbs?1 cupped handful It is an easy way to measure an appropriate amount of carbs if you feel like you're eating too much.When creating rigidity in the torso, what involves expiring against a closed glottis combined with contracting muscles of the abdomen and rib cage?Valsalva maneuver This method causes intrathoracic pressure which leads to the veins becoming compressed, significantly reducing venous blood flow into the heart and into the brain. Used for short bouts of maximal effort.What would determine how many meals a day a client should eat?Client preference. You should never force your client on what to eat and when to eat. Whenever they are feeling hungry, that is the best time for them.What is the angle of muscle pull?The angle at which the muscle pulls relative to the axis of the bone that it pulls on.Protein is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and what else?Nitrogen The only macronutrient to contain nitrogenWhich of the following intake forms is necessary to ensure that that there are no prior medical concerns for the client?PAR-Q. Physical Activity Readiness QuestionnaireMarathon training primarily recruits what kind of fibers?Slow-twitch (type 1) muscle fibers. These fibers have a slow contraction speed, utilize aerobic glycolysis, and is fatigue and injury resistant, making them perfect for long distance events/activities. Their name indicates that they are the fibers to be recruited first.When the scapular abductors are weak, what postural deviation can occur?KyphosisWhat muscle fiber is highly resistant to fatigue and injury?Type 1 (slow-twitch) muscle fibersWhich of the following represents safe load increases for a beginner client?5% - 10% Advanced: 2% - 5% Beginners have much more room for improvement; gaining size and strength. Experienced and intermediate trainees usually are at or beyond the national averages for strength capabilities.What bone runs parallel to the fibula?TibiaWhat does HIIT stand for?High intensity interval trainingA weight loss client is currently exercising 5 + hours a week and hits a plateau. What adjustments should a trainer suggest?Decrease k/cal intake by 250 Remove a cupped handful of carbs and a thumb of fats from their daily intake. If any more problems arise, try increasing the exercise to 7 + days a week and decreasing another 250 cal.Which macronutrient contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen?Carbohydrates Sugars, starches and fibers are all considered carbs because of their similar structures.A lateral leg raise demonstrates which kind of movement?Abduction Abduction is to move away from the midline of the body while adduction is moving towards the midline.During training, clients with hypertension should avoid what?Squat jumps High intensity aerobic exercise has no beneficial results on high blood pressure. The focus should be on non-weight- bearing and low-impact aerobic exercise because most individuals with hypertension are elderly and obese and tend to have lower-extremity orthopedic problems.Who should recommend a GXT (graded exercise test) for a client prior to starting an exercise program?Physician This test is meant for older individuals who are 40 years or older and with an abnormal physical examination (murmur) or two or more coronary risk factors. If you are 40 years or younger and you undergo a normal physical examination, has no symptoms of cardiovascular disease, no coronary risk factors, and no physical findings (hypertension, murmur) then you should be good to go.Utilizing the Valsalva maneuver gives up to how much greater force?20%A client with celiac disease asks for a nutrition plan, what should the trainer recommend?Give a breakdown of macronutrients Develop a meal plan that contains no gluten Avoid gluten if you have celiac disease. When someone with this disease ingests gluten, the lining of the small intestine is attacked by the body's natural defense system as it tries to react to the gluten. With an unhealthy intestinal lining, the body will be unable to absorb the necessary nutrients. Delayed growth and nutrient deficiencies start to occur. This includes anemia (one of the most common forms of iron deficiency; the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced) and osteoporosis (bones become fragile and break easily). Diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease and intestinal cramps also develop.What is the smallest phase or cycle of training?MicrocycleHow long does the guided discovery stage of the drawing-in phase last?2 - 3 weeks Or just a few workouts. The client needs to become acclimated with the equipment and some exercises.What does BMI stand for?Body Mass IndexThe gluteus maximus is located superior to which muscle?GastrocnemiusWhat type of contraction is involved in controlling and stopping a movement?Isometric contraction The muscle does not move nor does it lengthen. An example is being at the bottom of the push up position and holding yourself there for a certain amount of time.What movement requires constant agonist-antagonist muscle contractions?Dynamic balance An example of this would be to balance your self on one leg when trying to perform the pistol squat.The ATP/CP pathway is best for what activity?100m sprint Any activity that is short duration and requires max effort. Sustained power movements that last 0 - 10 sec.What is the daily water consumption recommendation?3 liters Bone contains 22% water, adipose tissue 25%, muscle cells 75%, and blood contains nearly 83%.Which resistance training system helps to increase intensity and optimize time?Supersets You do 2 - 3 exercises at a time with no rest between them. This style of training will save time and keep the workout intense.What does the FITT acronym stand for?Frequency: how often someone works out Intensity: how hard someone works out Time: How long they workout for Type: the kind(s) of exerciseIn an endurance mesocycle of a beginner's program, which set and rep scheme would be most appropriate?3 sets, 12 - 15 repsHigh intensity exercise could be problematic for diabetics due to which of the following?Nerve damage Nerve and eye damage are most common in individuals with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes.What is the primary reason for strength gains in youth clients?Neurological factors Once those youngsters hit adolescence (10 - 19) testosterone levels increase which leads to gains.When working with a new client that is utilizing tempo training, which portion of the exercise is drawn out?The eccentric phase Lower the weight down for a couple of sec, hold it (isometric phase), then shoot right back up on the concentric phase. 4 (eccentric) - 2 (isometric) - 1 (concentric)What is considered a limiting factor for good nutrition?Cheat days/weekends; repetitive weekends full of not following the plan. A good and healthy diet should not be looked at as a chore so on the weekends you can pig out. You want to enjoy eating things that taste good and are healthy.What is an example of a polyunsaturated fat?Omega-6What should a cool-down include?static stretching Never stretch before exercise, it will lower strength output. This has been proven in several studies on sprinting, jumping, and low speed strength tests.What describes a mesomorphic body type?Muscular (type V) Mesomorphs tend to benefit from a mixed diet of protein, carbs, and fat. -They gain much more muscle than the other body types -Testosterone and growth hormone dominant -Excess calories go to lean mass and dense bonesWhat would increase the rate of fatty acid metabolism and decreases the rate of carbohydrate metabolism during exercise?fish oilThe systolic blood pressure reading of 140 - 159 is what stage of hypertension?Hypertension stage 1 Optimal (systolic) (mm Hg): less than 120 (diastolic) (mm Hg): less than 80 Normal: less than 130 Less than 85 High normal: 130 - 139 85 - 89 Stage 1: 140 - 151 90 - 99 Stage 2: 160 - 179 100 - 109 Stage 3: 180 or higher 110 or higherIn order to calculate lean and fat mass, you must multiply the body fat percentage by what?HeightIf a client is in a hypertrophy-based phase, how many reps should be programmed?8 - 10 and 6 - 12 repsWhen levels of sodium in the blood are too low, what condition can occur?Hyponatremia This condition occurs when water levels out weigh sodium levels. A common condition along with dehydration.If a client has a hard time touching their head to the wall during postural analysis, what postural deviation do they have?Forward headWhat is considered the powerhouse of the cell?Mitochondria A source of energy in the cell, they form the cytoplasm and they aid in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism.Which contraction helps to generate enough tension in the muscle to contract explosively?Ballistic Explosive or quick maximum contractions. Examples include throwing a knockout punch in boxing.Out of these, which exercise should be performed first? Squat jump Back squat Split squat Power cleanSquat jump Non-linear, speed strength training (agility, plyometrics) come before explosive training (Olympic movements; power cleans), and these movements come before multi-joint movements (back squat), followed by single-joint movements (split squat) (larger muscles then smaller muscles).What is the term for when expired oxygen during the recovery phase from exercise is excess of resting needs?Oxygen debt Oxygen you inhale post exercise to make up for the amount you lost during exercise.Which macronutrient is most readily available for energy production?Carbohydrates First comes carbs, then fat comes in when carb stores are depleted. So during endurance/long-distance events, it is smart to have an energy drink (they contain carbs) to replenish your glycogen stores, providing you with more energy.What resistance training method divides one set into several mini-sets with rest?Rest - pause Set 1: 225 x 8 Rest 15 sec Set 2: 225 x 3 Rest 15 sec Set 3: 225 x 2 This method is meant to improve strength, not size. It is also incredibly taxing on the nervous system so don't do it everyday.When the spine develops an S- or a C-shaped curve, what is this imbalance called?ScoliosisWhat type of lever is the bicep curl?Third class lever There is effort placed between the fulcrum (forearm) and the load (weight being curled).Approximately how many calories are in one pound of fat?3500When administering a skin-fold assessment, which side of the body should all measurements be taken on for body fat?The right side Readings should be done on the skin and not through the clothes. Take them 3 times and whatever the average is of the two closest readings, use that for the appropriate formula. And of course, keep practicing.What is "discussing the nutrient per pound of food"?Nutrient density The more nutrients a food has, the more nutrient dense it is.What is an example of a behavior goal?The steps you take towards reaching that goal Decrease mile run by 1 minWhat is the range needed to achieve maximum power when using 55% - 85% of 1RM?3 - 5 reps, 3 - 5 setsApproximately how many calories are in one gram of carbohydrate?4What occurs when exercise begins and the intake of oxygen doesn't immediately meet the demands?Oxygen deficitWhich of the following supplements assists in muscle contraction, immunity, and regulation of blood sugar?Magnesium Foods that include this mineral: legumes, spinach, swiss chard, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fruits, avocado, poultry (bird).Which principle do emergency medical professionals use to reduce the pain and inflammation from an athletic injury?RICE principle Rest: person must be in a safe location and they must do little to no movement Ice: 20-min intervals to the injured/inflamed area Compression: bandage should be applied to the injured area to keep tension on there Elevation: injured body part should be raised above heart levelWhat training principle dictates increasing load or intensity each mesocycle?Progressive overload principle Train harder than last time! Increase the load (weight), reps, volume, frequencyA client has a BMI of 24.8, which of the following categories do they fall in?Normal Underweight: < less than 18.5 Normal: 18.5 - 24.9 Overweight: 25.0 - 29.9 Obesity, class 1: 30.0 - 34.9 Obesity, class 2: 35.0 - 39.0 Extreme obesity, class 3: > greater than 40How the body breaks down and uses energy for activity is what?Energy metabolism Foodstuffs (protein, fats, carbs) are broken down to produce energy, use it, and give it off as heat in a series of chemical reactions. That heat that is released is why your body is warm during exercise.How many hours after a meal should a diabetic train?1 - 3 This timeframe is important because that is when blood sugar levels are still relatively high.The body is comprised of storage fat and what else?Essential fat Storage fat: energy reserve in adipose tissue. Responsible for protecting internal organs and larger subcutaneous (beneath the skin surface) fat and it makes up 12% body mass for men and 15% for women. Essential fat: found in the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, muscle, bone marrow, and lipid-rich tissues found throughout the central nervous system (CNS). For women, there is additional essential fat in the mammary glands and pelvic region. This fat is also needed for normal physiological functioning.What is an example of a water soluble vitamin?Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) This vitamin is able to be dissolved in water. This vitamin aids in making collagen, immune function, making hormones, neurotransmitters, and DNA, enhances iron absorption, and anti-oxidation. Foods: sweet peppers, citrus fruits, broccoli, strawberries, kiwi, guava, kohlrabi, papaya, and brussels sprouts.In what exercise are the triceps considered the agonist?Overhead triceps extension Agonist is known as the "prime mover". It is the main muscle involved in a concentric contraction.What muscle is the antagonist in the dumbbell curl?Triceps Antagonist is the muscle that directly opposes the agonist muscle. Bicep curl, biceps are the agonist and the triceps are antagonist. Overhead triceps extension, triceps are the agonist and biceps are the antagonist.What can postural deviations result in?Poor muscle balance, poor flexibility, improper spinal alignment, and injury predisposition.Why are children more susceptible to heat exhaustion and heat stroke?Children do not sweat as muchProgramming tempo runs for a client that wishes to compete in a race represents which training principle?SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands) Training that carries over to the sport/activity you engage in. If you want to become more explosive, train explosively.Which type of move is MOST powerful during the contraction?Agonist (prime mover)What body type will have an inflated BMI?Mesomorphs Muscle weighs more than fat, so people who are super muscular can be considered overweight.Myofibrils are constructed of overlapping strands of protein polymers known as what?Actin and Myosin Actin are the long and thin filaments Myosin are the short and thick onesWhat exercise is the soleus considered the prime mover?Seated calf raiseFor children of ages between 5 and 12, what should strength training focus on?Form and techniqueIf body fat has decreased but the scale has stayed the same, this means your client has gained what?Lean massWhat is a strategy for nutrition coaching?Identifying and eliminating limiting factors Overeating processed food, not eating enough protein, how someone eats, eating in the absence of hunger, not eating when hungry, missing meals and then eating ones that are too large, sugar sweetened beverages, lack of sleep and recovery, not eating satisfying meals, using food to manage feelings, all-or-nothing (jumping into a new diet), environments that require too much willpower, not doing the work, no basic food preparation skills, going on diets, weekends, and lack of incoming nutrients.What percentage of total body weight is made up of water?60 percent Bone has 22% water, adipose tissue 25%, muscle cells 75%, and blood 83%.Which joint in the body is known as the saddle joint?Thumb Flexion/extension Abduction/adduction CircumductionWhat is considered an acceptable body fat range for a male client?19% - 23%A trainer has an explosive-sport athlete client and has them perform explosive movements. What principle does this fall under?SAID/SpecificityWhat is used to measure the pressure exerted on the walls of the blood vessels during refilling of the heart?Diastolic pressureWhen performing CPR, what do procedures A, B, and C stand for?Airway Breathing CirculationWhat is an appropriate body fat range for a female client?19% - 23%What is a good carbohydrate source to consume for weight/fat loss?Minimally processed; slow digesting and high-fiber They have the highest amount of micronutrients and phytonutrients (plant nutrients), as well as controlling food intake.What does a conditioned clients' resting heart rate look like?60 bpm or lowerA client is 45 years old and has a resting heart rate of 75 bpm. Using the Karvonen formula, what is the target heart rate at an exercise intensity of 60%?220 - 45 (age) = 175 175 - 75 (bpm) = 100 (heart rate reserve) 100 x 0.60 (exercise intensity) = 60 60 + 75 = 135 (target heart rate (beats/min))What are the four elements of a fitness program?Strength, cardio, flexibility, body composition BalanceAfter training, how long does it typically take for DOMS to kick in?12 - 48 hoursWhat population is most at risk for Osgood Schlatter's disease?Youth Inflammation of the patellar ligament (extension of the quadriceps tendon) at the tibial tuberosity. A painful lump just below the knee.What marker is an easy way to assess hydration levels in the body?Color of your urine The brighter your piss is, the more hydrated you are. The darker it is = dehydration."Keep your heels on the ground" is an appropriate clue to give clients during what movement?Back squatThose who engage in cross training experience what?Positive orthopedic benefit Doing different modes of exercise (running, cycling, swimming) are not only fun, but also a great way to keep things new and exciting. Learn some new skills and challenge yourself in different ways. You become more well-rounded and avoid repetition with the same bones and muscle groups over and over again.What is the agonist used in the upright row exercise?The deltoidsWhat is the prime mover in the pull up?Latissimus dorsi Antagonist (eccentric phase) is the chest muscles.What type of muscle arrangement runs parallel to the longitudinal axis of the muscle?Parallel muscle fiber (stylohyoid muscle in the neck) Fusiform (nearly parallel; biceps brachii) Triangular (muscles spread over a wide area; pectoralis major) Multipennate (fascicles attach from many directions; deltoid) Unipennate (fascicles are on only one side; flexor pollcis longus at the thumb) Bipennate (fascicles are arranged on both sides; soleus)If a client is suffering from insulin shock, what should a trainer give them?Sugar People with diabetes should always have a form of fast-acting carbs (juice, soft drink, candy, glucose tablet) in case there is an emergency in case blood glucose levels are low.What detects the magnitude of mechanical stress at the musculotendinous joint?Golgi tendon organ (GTO) When there is excessive stretch/tension in the muscle, the GTO will get the brain to "shut off" the muscle contraction.What is an appropriate rep range for a client who is training for hypertrophy?6-12 or 8-12 Higher reps produce more gains (hypertrophy). However, strength training can as well. You must train hard even if the reps are low. Good form and technique to make sure you don't injure yourself.What is the recommended amount of fat per meal for a female client?1 thumb 1 cupped handful of carbs 1 palmful of protein 1 fist of veggiesWhat is the prime mover used in the lunge?QuadricepsWhat is required for weight loss but will also result in loss of lean body mass?Negative energy balance Calories out > is more than calories in Positive energy balance Calories in > more than calories out Neutral energy balance Calories in is = to calories out (this one is recommended) calories eaten and calories burned are =What stabilizes the knee on the posterior side?Hamstrings"Do not allow legs to bow inward or outward" is an appropriate cue to give clients during what movement?Tube walking Attach a resistance band on the external side of both legs (at the knee) and walk side-to-side, engaging the lateral portion of your glutes.What is the best way to earn a client's trust when they are feeling the water before jumping in?Create a plan you have both jointly discovered.Which joint permits limited gliding movement and can be found in the bones of the wrist?ArthrodialWhat population are environmental conditions such as pollen, allergies, and extreme temperature for?Clients with asthma -They should be aware of what the weather is like for pollutants and pollens. When it is cold outside, it is best to make sure they cover their nose and throat. Cold air on the air pathways must be avoided.Weakness and numbness of the face, arm, or leg that is often on one side of the body refers to what condition?Stroke Blood supply to the brain is cut off causing paralysis.What does body composition testing determine?Lean mass and fat massWhat is an example of an outcome goal?Lose 10 pounds Behavior goals are the steps you take to reach your outcome goal.What is total daily expenditure (metabolic rate)?Resting metabolic rate + physical activity + thermic effect of food = total daily expenditure. The result of everything you have done actively and passively to burn calories within a 24 hour period.Client differences are an important part of periodization and refer to which principle?Principle of individual differences Everybody responds differently to certain things. One person has genetics that allow them to burn calories faster than someone else. Not everyone can do the same exercise program. This goal is important for beginners so they don't set unrealistic goals and so they aren't disappointed with the results.Exercises which include sprinting and weightlifting utilize which type of muscle fiber?Type 2 (fast-twitch) Exercises that are fast and short in duration.What is part of stage 1 in the drawing-in phase?Demonstrating sincerityWhat is characterized as a carbohydrate?Fiber, sugar, starch They all have similar chemical structuresWhat is the appropriate protein portion for women?1 palmWhat assessment is appropriate for testing upper body strength?1RM bench pressWhat exercise is best for testing muscular endurance?Push upsApproximately how many calories are in 1 gram of protein?4What muscle fiber is best for a 1RM test?Type 2 (fast-twitch) muscle fiberA client has a history of heart disease, what should the trainer request?Medical clearanceWhat thing should be incorporated into a program to help reduce DOMS?Static-stretchingThe "hunchback", or rounded appearance of the upper back is known as what postural deviation?KyphosisWhat type of grip denotes the palm facing upwards towards the celling?SupinatedWhich body type has a slower metabolic rate and does not tolerate carbohydrates?Endomorphs (type O) -Not as active as the other types and excess calories are stored as fat. 25% carbs, 35% protein, and 40% fatWhat is an inexpensive, portable, and common way to assess body fat in the fitness industry?Skinfold measurementsWhat is known as the increase in the size of muscle fibers?HypertrophyA trainer has a client request their records; how must that request be made?Only in writingWhat is the recommended exercise intensity level for someone with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes?55% - 85% of HR, 20 - 30 min sessions Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) should exercise at the low range of the intensity range, but for longer periods of time to promote weight loss. 40 - 60 min sessions.When the spine curves inward at the low back, what postural deviation is it?lordosisObesity and stress are confirmed risk factors of what?Coronary heart disease (CHD)During what stage of the drawing-in phase should the liability waiver be signed?Stage 2: data collection This stage is where you get accurate up-to-date background info regarding your clients' health status.What is the maximum arterial pressure occurring during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart?Systolic pressure less than 130 (systolic pressure)/less than 85 (diastolic pressure) normal rangeA weight training program that divides weight training sessions into upper and lower body training is referred to as what?Split system training principleWhat type of joint allows movement?Synovial (ball-and-socket) Shoulder and hip jointsWhat is considered the building block of protein?Amino acidsmacrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles are apart of what training protocol?PeriodizationWhat is an alternative exercise for the hanging leg raise?CrunchesA pregnant client experiences persistent severe headaches and unexplained spells of dizziness during training, what should the trainer do?Refer her to a doctorWhat exercise should be performed last? -Shuttle runs -Power snatch -Overhead press -Front raiseFront raise In order Plyometrics Agility Explosive training (Olympic movements) Smaller musclesWhat measures exercise intensity?RPE (Ratings of Perceived Exertion) On a scale of 6 - 20 will indicate how hard the workout is.What is high normal blood pressure categorized as?130 - 139 (systolic pressure)/85 - 89 (diastolic pressure)The knee is stabilized on the anterior side of which muscle?QuadricepsWhat is encouraged for nutrition coaching for positive reinforcement?Food journal Counting calories and doing all the other math stuff is very boring and makes you feel bad. This method is much more effective. All you're doing is writing down what you ate to keep track. Point out the tings they are doing right.Which of the following states that energy is never created nor destroyed, it's just transferred between entities?The Law of ThermodynamicsWhich macronutrient is made up of carbon and hydrogen elements joined together in long groups called hydrocarbons?Fat (lipids)Approximately how many calories are in 1 gram of fat?9How many hours of activity should portion sizes of meals be enough to sustain for?4Which joint performs adduction, abduction, horizontal adduction and abduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction?ShoulderMaximal heart rate is calculated by subtracting your age from:220What causes pain or stiffness in the skeletal joints?ArthritisWhen is it okay for a client to become intimately involved with their trainer?NeverDuring which stage of the drawing-in phase should the trainer discuss the client's goals?Stage 5: Establishing an Integrated Fitness Lifestyle They should be asking: what are my goals? What do I want to accomplish? What are my options?Which principle states that we all undergo stress in three stages: shock, compensation, and exhaustion?The 7th principle GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome)Fat-soluble vitamins include A,D, E and what else?Vitamin KA client says they have a headache, what should the trainer do?Have them drink water and stop the training session.When developing a client's training plan, the entire training cycle is referred to as what?Macrocycle The span of a year Mesocycle: months Microcycle: days to weeksMetabolism can be categorized in which of the following stages?Catabolism (breakdown) and anabolism (build up)Which stage of the drawing-in phase will you collect client data?Stage 2: Data CollectionWhich type of stretching is beneficial for sports performance and involves momentum?Dynamic stretchingWhich of the following is the strength required to resist and control the resistance in the downward phase of the movement?EccentricA client is a type 1 diabetic and asks for a meal plan, what should the trainer do?Give an breakdown of the macronutrients This way they can know what to eat and what not to eat.Which of the following forms would you use to gain insight into the daily nutritional habits of a client?3-day dietary recordWhat is the suggested carbohydrate intake for male clients per meal?2 cupped handfulsConstant agonist-antagonist muscle contractions occur in order to maintain a certain position during:Dynamic balanceAt what age will adults experience a decrease in ROM?55During a biceps curl, the triceps play what role in contraction?AntagonistHow often does an ISSA personal trainer have to renew their certification?Every 2 years