33 terms

IB Geography Urban Envrionments

Key vocabulary required in the IB geography option Urban Environments. Taken from the May 2011 syllabus.
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Brownfield Site
Abandoned or underused industrial building which has the potential to be redeveloped.
Chain Migration
Moving from one area to another in steps. From one village to another, to a town and eventually to a city.
Circular Migration
Migrants who repeatedly return home from cities.
Conurbation
The process where towns and villages outside a city merge in with one another.
Counterurbanisation
A population moves away from inner urban areas to new towns, estates or a commuter town or village in the suburbs of the city.
Also known as deurbanisation or reurbanisation.
Ecological Footprint
The theory which measures the amount of land and water a population requires to produce the same amount of resources it uses.
Exurbanisation
When affluent people move from the city to rural areas but maintain a city life through commuting or technology.
Factors Affecting Migration
Push factors: sending a person away from an area. E.g. war, famine.
Pull factors: attract a person to an area. E.g. education, employment.
Restraining factors: encourage a person to stay in their current location. E.g. family
Gentrification
Occurs when people move into run-down inner-city areas and renovates old buildings.
Megacity
A city with a population of at least 10 million people.
Primate City
The political, economical, social and cultural focus of a country. They generally have a population 5 times larger than the second biggest city. E.g. Jakarta (Indonesia) or Kathmandu (Nepal).
Reurbanisation
Development of activities and services to encourage people to live within a city. It can include redevelopment of land and housing and new potential for businesses.
Rural Settlement
A dwelling (a place of shelter) or group of dwellings that provide housing for farmers.
Rural-Urban Migration
Movement of people from rural areas to urban areas.
Shanty Housing
'Homemade' housing using scavenged materials such as corrugated iron, cloth and plastic.
Are called favelas in Brazil, if you used the Brazilian case study.
Squatters
People who have no legal title on the land they live on. The do not rent or own land and will build or live on vacant land, such as nearby railways or on steep slopes.
Suburb
An area just outside the city, usually residential.
Suburbanisation
The growth of towns and cities which "engulf" other villages and towns. It can occur by out-migration or rural-urban migration. Two examples are Sydney (Australia) and London (United Kingdom).
Sustainable Rural Management Strategies (SRMS)
A management campaign seeking to maintain and improve life for urban dwellers. It can be social (housing, crime), economic (jobs, income) or environmental (water, land).
Urban Blight
An area has became so run-down, with graffiti, abandoned buildings and vandalism it encourages people to move away.
Urban Consolidation
A method reducing urban sprawl by increasing the number of residential areas within a city.
Urban Decay
Reflects the lack of inner-city demand. Many vacant blocks, derelict buildings, graffiti. It is not a source of employment, tax revenue or income.
Urban Dynamics
The processes operating in an urban area.
Urban Growth
Increase in size of an urban area or an increase in the number of people living in an urban area.
Urban Heat Island
Urban areas becoming warmer than their surroundings. Is done by cement retaining heat, car exhausts, pollution fumes, etc.
Urban Morphology
The appearance of urban centres.
Urban Renewal
A governmental programme, converting run-down areas into attractive public areas. E.g. London Docklands in Sydney, Australia.
Urban Settlement
An area of housing which provides services (shops, manufacturing) to the surrounding countryside.
Urban Sprawl
Unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of a city into surrounding areas.
Do not confuse with suburbanisation!
Urban Village
A residential district housing a community with the same ethnic background.
Urbanisation
An increasing percentage of a country's population moves into towns and cities. It can be due to migration or natural increase.
Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)
The point where land costs the most. Is often in the Central Business District (CBD).
Modernisation
The process where governments in LEDCs raise he living standards for their population. Is often seen to be connected to westernisation, which means abandoning their traditions for the perceived idealistic western lifestyle.