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MGT 331 Multiple Choice
Terms in this set (151)
The study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself.
The process of determining an organization's desired future position and the best means of getting there.
The process of designing jobs, grouping jobs into units, and establishing patterns of authority between jobs and units.
The process of getting the organization's members to work together toward the organization's goals.
The process of monitoring and correcting the actions of the organization and its members to keep them directed toward their goals.
The skills necessary to accomplish specific tasks within the organization.
The ability to effectively communicate with, understand, and motivate individuals and groups.
The ability to think in the abstract.
The ability to understand cause-and-effect relationships and to recognize the optimal solutions to problems.
Human resource management
The set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce.
Anything that gives a firm an edge over rivals in attracting customers and defending itself against competition.
Based on the belief that productivity is maximized when organizations are rationalized with precise sets of instructions based on time-and-motion studies.
A set of interrelated elements functioning as a whole.
The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization.
Those that detract from, rather than contribute to, organizational performance.
Method of knowledge generation that relies on systematic studies that identify and replicate a result using a variety of methods, samples, and settings.
A collection of verbal and symbolic assertions that specify how and why variables are related, and the conditions under which they should and should not relate.
Written predictions specifying expected relationships between certain variables.
The variable that is predicted to affect something else.
The variable predicted to be affected by something else.
A statistical technique used to combine the results of many different research studies done in a variety of organizations and for a variety of jobs.
The variety of observable and unobservable similarities and differences among people.
Observable differences in people, including race, age, ethnicity, physical abilities, physical characteristics, and gender.
Individual differences that cannot be seen directly, including goals, values, personalities, decision-making styles, knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes.
The internationalization of business activities and the shift toward an integrated global economy.
The ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures.
The set of shared values, often taken for granted, that help people in a group, organization, or society understand which actions are considered acceptable and which are deemed unacceptable.
Exists to the extent that people in a culture define themselves primarily as individuals rather than as part of one or more groups or organizations.
Characterized by tight social frameworks in which people tend to base their identities on the group or organization to which they belong.
The extent to which people accept as normal an unequal distribution of power.
The extent to which people feel threatened by unknown situations and prefer to be in clear and unambiguous situations.
The extent to which the dominant values in a society emphasize aggressiveness and the acquisition of money and other possessions as opposed to concern for people, relationships among people, and overall quality of life.
Include focusing on the future, working on projects that have a distant payoff, persistence, and thrift.
More oriented toward the past and the present and include respect for traditions and social obligations.
Refers to the methods used to create products, including both physical goods and intangible services.
A form of business that combines and transforms resources into tangible outcomes that are then sold to others.
One that transforms resources into an intangible output and creates time or place utility for its customers.
A person's beliefs regarding what is right or wrong in a given situation.
Corporate social responsibility
Businesses living and working together for the common good and valuing human dignity.
Those employees who add value in an organization simply because of what they know.
The practice of hiring other firms to do work previously performed by the organization itself; when this work is moved overseas, it is often called offshoring.
Moving some or all of a business process from one country toanother country.
A person who works for an organization on something other than a permanent or full-time basis.
A person's set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization, in return, will provide to the individual.
Personal attributes that vary from one person to another.
The fit between a person's abilities and the demands of the job, and the fit between a person's desires and motivations and the attributes and rewards of a job.
The fit between an individual's values, beliefs, and personality and the values, norms, and culture of the organization.
The fit between a person's interests, abilities, values, and personality and a profession.
The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another.
"Big Five" personality traits
A set of five fundamental traits that are especially relevant to organizations.
The ability to get along with others.
Refers to an individual being dependable and organized.
Characterized by a person's tendency to experience unpleasant emotions such as anger, anxiety, depression, and feelings of vulnerability.
The quality of being comfortable with relationships.
The tendency to be less comfortable in relationships and social situations.
The capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of new information.
The Myers-Briggs framework
A personality framework based upon Carl Jung's work on psychological types and measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
Locus of control
The extent to which one believes one's circumstances are a function of either one's own actions or of external factors beyond one's control.
The belief that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations.
A trait causing a person to behave in ways to gain power and control the behavior of others.
Tolerance for risk
The degree to which a person is comfortable with risk and is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.
Tolerance for ambiguity
Reflects the tendency to view ambiguous situations as either threatening or desirable.
Type A personality
Impatient, competitive, ambitious, and uptight.
Type B personality
More relaxed and easygoing and less overtly competitive than Type A.
Repeated mistreatment of another employee through verbal abuse; conduct that is threatening, humiliating, or intimidating; or sabotage that interferes with the other person's work.
General mental ability
The capacity to rapidly and fluidly acquire, process, and apply information.
Information processing capacity
Involves the way individuals process and organize information.
Emotional intelligence (EI)
An interpersonal capability that includes the ability to perceive and express emotions, to understand and use them, and to manage emotions in oneself and other people.
A person's complexes of beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or other people.
The knowledge a person presumes to have about something.
A person's feeling toward something.
Component of an attitude that guides a person's behavior.
An incompatibility or conflict between behavior and an attitude or between two different attitudes.
Reflects our attitudes and feelings about our job.
Reflects the degree to which an employee identifies with the organization and its goals and wants to stay with the organization.
Heightened emotional and intellectual connection that an employee has for his or her job, organization, manager, or coworkers that, in turn, influences him or her to apply additional discretionary effort to his or her work.
Ways of behaving or end-states that are desirable to a person or to a group.
Reflect our long-term life goals and may include prosperity, happiness, a secure family, and a sense of accomplishment.
Our preferred means of achieving our terminal values or our preferred ways of behaving.
Intrinsic work values
Relate to the work itself.
Extrinsic work values
Relate to the outcomes of doing work.
Intense, short-term physiological, behavioral, and psychological reactions to a specific object, person, or event that prepare us to respond to it.
Short-term emotional states that are not directed toward anything in particular.
Represents our tendency to experience a particular mood or to react to things with certain emotions.
Reflects a combination of high energy and positive evaluation characterized by emotions like elation.
Comprises feelings of being upset, fearful, and distressed.
The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment.
The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs.
The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute.
The way we explain the causes of our own as well as other people's behaviors and achievements, and understand why people do what they do.
Refers to employees' perceptions of organizational events, policies, and practices as being fair or not fair.
Refers to the perceived fairness of the outcome received, including resource distributions, promotions, hiring and layoff decisions, and raises.
Addresses the fairness of the procedures used to generate the outcome.
Whether the amount of information about the decision and the process was adequate, and the perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment and explanations received during the decision-making process.
A person's adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive psychological or physical demands on that person.
The pleasurable stress that accompanies positive events.
The unpleasant stress that accompanies negative events.
Various factors in the workplace that can cause stress.
A general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and has too few sources of satisfaction.
Interrelationships between a person's work life and personal life.
The set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways.
Anything an individual requires or wants.
A person's beliefs in his or her capabilities to do what is required to accomplish a specific task.
Assume that need deficiencies cause behavior.
Hierarchy of needs
Assumes that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance.
Describes existence, relatedness, and growth needs.
Identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which determine dissatisfaction.
Are intrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as achievement and recognition.
Are extrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as pay and job security.
Acquired needs framework
Centers on the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power.
Need for achievement
The desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was done in the past.
Need for affiliation
The need for human companionship.
Need for power
The desire to control the resources in one's environment.
Focus on how people behave in their efforts to satisfy their needs.
Focuses on people's desire to be treated with what they perceive as equity and to avoid perceived inequity.
The belief that we are being treated fairly in relation to others
The belief that we are being treated unfairly in relation to others.
Suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it.
A person's perception of the probability that effort will lead to performance.
The individual's perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes.
Anything that results from performing a particular behavior.
The degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness a particular outcome has for a person.
A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential resulting from direct or indirect experience.
Based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences.
When people observe the behaviors of others, recognize the consequences, and alter their own behavior as a result.
The application of reinforcement theory to influence the behaviors of people in organizational settings.
How organizations define and structure jobs.
Breaking jobs down into small component tasks and standardizing them across all workers doing those jobs.
Systematically moving workers from one job to another in an attempt to minimize monotony and boredom.
Involves giving workers more tasks to perform.
Entails giving workers more tasks to perform and more control over how to perform them.
Job characteristics theory
Uses five motivational properties of tasks and three critical psychological states to improve outcomes.
Entails giving employees a voice in making decisions about their own work.
The process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority.
Compressed work schedule
Work schedule in which employees work a full forty-hour week in fewer than the traditional five days.
Two or more part-time employees sharing one full-time job.
Flexible work schedules
Give employees more personal control over the hours they work each day.
Work arrangement in which employees spend part of their time working off-site.
A desirable objective.
The extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort.
The clarity and precision of a goal.
The extent to which a person accepts a goal as his or her own.
The extent to which a person is personally interested in reaching a goal.
Management by objectives (MBO)
A collaborative goal-setting process through which organizational goals cascade down throughout the organization.
All organizational components, including people, processes, rules and procedures, and decision-making activities, involved in allocating compensation and benefits to employees in exchange for their contributions to the organization.
The total array of money (wages, salary, commissions), incentives, benefits, perquisites, and awards provided by an organization to an individual.
Plans in which employees can earn additional compensation in return for certain types of performance.
Employee benefits provided as a form of compensation.
Flexible reward system
Allows employees to choose the combination of benefits that best suits their needs.
Having a high concern with others' perceptions of us and adjusting our behavior to fit the situation.
Culture of inclusion
The extent to which majority members value efforts to increase minority representation, and whether the qualifications and abilities of minority members are questioned.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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