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Folk culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.


groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture

material culture

The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture

non-material culture

ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior

popular culture

Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)

indigenous culture

A culture group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation.


loss of uniqueness of a place

Vernacular culture region

A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identy.

convergence hypothesis

a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the United States will apply equally well in other nations.

cultural imperialism

spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.

cultural nationalism

an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially the penetrating influence of U.S. culture

cultural diffusion

the spread of cultural elements from one society to another

maladaptive diffusion

diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)


a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition


accepted or habitual practice


an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion

culture region

includes many diffrent counties that have certain traits in common

culture complex

A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).

culture trait

activities and behaviors that people repeatedly practice

culture realm

A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.

cultural hearths

Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture

cultural determinism

cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people


a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

proselytic religions

Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. This important to HG because these are three of the biggest religions in the world they are practiced all over the world.

ethnic religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated

monotheistic religions

belief in one god

polytheistic religions

religion in which there is a belief in many gods.

orthodox religions

A strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and is not open to blending with other religions

hierarchical religions

A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control

universalizing religions

seeks followers from all over the world

traditional religions

Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature.


the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls


the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth

contact conversion

The Spread of Religious Beliefs by Personal Contact

adaptive strategy

The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment; Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life - Food, clothing, shelter, and defense


The Study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification


(philosophy) a doctrine explaining phenomena by their ends or purposes

Gaia hypothesis

The idea that Earth is a living system


Religious journeys to the Holy Land.

sacred spaces

Places sacred to certain groups


religious teachers sent to convert natives to christianity


a person who does not acknowledge your God


a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations


the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel


the belief in government by divine guidance

interfaith boundaries

boundaries between the major religions

intrafaith boundaries

boundaries within a single major faith


the mental faculty or power of vocal communication


the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

pidgin language

A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.


a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages

lingua franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages

language families/groups

families that have a language

language branch

A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.


person who speeks several languages


the limits of areal extent of particular words

linguistic refugee areas

An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived

shatter belts

an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values


knowing only one language


Place name

generic toponyms

The Description part of many okace-names, often repeated throughout a culture area

official language

a governmentally designated language of instruction, of government, of the courts, and other official public and private communication

standard language

a language substantially uniform with respect to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary and representing the approved community norm of the tongue

isolated language

A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.


The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.

language divergence

new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects

language convergence

collapsing of two language into one.

language replacement

Replacing a language

reverse reconstruction

To reverse any reconstruction attepmted

conquest theory

theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback

renfrew hypothesis

three areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families.

monolingual states

countries in which only one language is spoken

multilingual states

a state that uses many languages


a canal for a current of water, an idea used to divide humankind into categories based upon skin color and other physical characteristics.


discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race

ethnic cleansing

the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area


a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites

ethnic group

people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture


the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture


the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure


cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact

social destination

The best place for social contact

ethnic homelands

A sizeable area inhabited by an ehnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of politcal and social control over it

ethnic islands

small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.

ethnic substrate

Regional Cultural Distinctiveness that remains following the assimilation of an ethnic homeland

ethnic neighborhood

an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background

ethnic enclave

a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture


an urban area in a Spanish-speaking country

cultural simplification

The process by which immigrant ethnic groups lose certain aspects of their traditional culture in the process of settling overseas, creating a new culture that is less complex than the old

cultural preadaptation

A Complex of adaptice traits and skills possessed in advance of migration by a group, giving them survival ability and competitve advantage in occupying the new environment


= the many forms and practices that define how a nation shops for, cooks, and consumes its food

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