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91 terms

Unit 3 AP human geography

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Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
subcultures
groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture
material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
non-material culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)
indigenous culture
A culture group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation.
placelessness
loss of uniqueness of a place
Vernacular culture region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identy.
convergence hypothesis
a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the United States will apply equally well in other nations.
cultural imperialism
spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.
cultural nationalism
an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially the penetrating influence of U.S. culture
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
maladaptive diffusion
diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
habit
a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition
custom
accepted or habitual practice
taboo
an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
culture region
includes many diffrent counties that have certain traits in common
culture complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
culture trait
activities and behaviors that people repeatedly practice
culture realm
A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.
cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
cultural determinism
cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people
religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
proselytic religions
Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. This important to HG because these are three of the biggest religions in the world they are practiced all over the world.
ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
monotheistic religions
belief in one god
polytheistic religions
religion in which there is a belief in many gods.
orthodox religions
A strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and is not open to blending with other religions
hierarchical religions
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
universalizing religions
seeks followers from all over the world
traditional religions
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature.
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
fundamentalism
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
contact conversion
The Spread of Religious Beliefs by Personal Contact
adaptive strategy
The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment; Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life - Food, clothing, shelter, and defense
ecotheology
The Study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification
teleology
(philosophy) a doctrine explaining phenomena by their ends or purposes
Gaia hypothesis
The idea that Earth is a living system
pilgrimages
Religious journeys to the Holy Land.
sacred spaces
Places sacred to certain groups
missionaries
religious teachers sent to convert natives to christianity
pagan
a person who does not acknowledge your God
secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
language families/groups
families that have a language
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
polygot
person who speeks several languages
isoglosses
the limits of areal extent of particular words
linguistic refugee areas
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
shatter belts
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
monoglots
knowing only one language
toponyms
Place name
generic toponyms
The Description part of many okace-names, often repeated throughout a culture area
official language
a governmentally designated language of instruction, of government, of the courts, and other official public and private communication
standard language
a language substantially uniform with respect to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary and representing the approved community norm of the tongue
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
language replacement
Replacing a language
reverse reconstruction
To reverse any reconstruction attepmted
conquest theory
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families.
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
multilingual states
a state that uses many languages
race
a canal for a current of water, an idea used to divide humankind into categories based upon skin color and other physical characteristics.
racism
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
ethnic group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
social destination
The best place for social contact
ethnic homelands
A sizeable area inhabited by an ehnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of politcal and social control over it
ethnic islands
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
ethnic substrate
Regional Cultural Distinctiveness that remains following the assimilation of an ethnic homeland
ethnic neighborhood
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
ethnic enclave
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
barrio
an urban area in a Spanish-speaking country
cultural simplification
The process by which immigrant ethnic groups lose certain aspects of their traditional culture in the process of settling overseas, creating a new culture that is less complex than the old
cultural preadaptation
A Complex of adaptice traits and skills possessed in advance of migration by a group, giving them survival ability and competitve advantage in occupying the new environment
foodways
= the many forms and practices that define how a nation shops for, cooks, and consumes its food