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PS 280 UIUC Final Exam Vocab
Terms in this set (70)
The ability of a country or firm to produce more of a particular good or service than other countries or firms using the same amount of effort and resources
The basic unit for the analysis of international politics; can be individuals or groups of people with common interests.
Belonging or appropriate to an earlier period, especially so as to seem conspicuously old-fashioned
The absence of a central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws that bind all actors
Balance of Power
a situation in which the military capabilities of two states or groups of states are roughly equal
An interaction in which actors must choose outcomes that make one better off at the expense of another. Bargaining is redistributive: it involves allocating a fixed sum of value between different actors.
The Black Box of the State
Rejecting the assumption that states are unitary actors and examine domesitc processes, idiosyncrasies of leaders, historical or cultural factors
the wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, corporation, etc.
the institution that regulates monetary conditions in an economy, typically by affecting interest rates and the quantity of money in circulation
A variant of realism that emphasized the devious nature of humanity in explaining international conflict; championed primarily by Hans Morgenthau
The ability of a country or firm to produce a particular good or service more efficiently than other goods or services, such that its resources are most efficiently employed in this activity. The comparison is to the efficiency of other economic activities the actor might undertake, not to the efficiency of other countries or firms.
Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis
Democratic Peace Theory
Liberal Political Theory based on the observation that there are few if any clear cases of war between mature democratic states
Dilemma of common aversion
When actors share common interest in avoiding an undesirable outcome
Dilemma of common interests
When actors share common interest in achieving a particular outcome
power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide light and heat or to work machines.
The Price at which one currency is exchanged for another
Costs or benefits for stakeholders other than the actor undertaking an action. When an externality exists, the decision maker does not bear all the costs or reap all the gains from his or her action.
The center of interest or activity
Foreign Direct Investment
Investment in a foreign country via the acquisition of a local facility or the establishment of a new facility. Direct investors maintain managerial control of the foreign operation.
A methodological approach to complex problems that examines the motivations, goals, and potential strategies of actors in strategic interactions in order to predict what is likely to happen in a given interaction between two or more actors
Globalization is a process by which societies become increasingly interconnected. They can become interconnected in a variety of economic, financial, social, cultural, or technological ways.
any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere, including, but not limited to, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
Hecksher-Ohlin Trade Theory
The theory that a country will export goods that make intensive use of the factors of production in which it is well endowed. Thus, a labor-rich country will export goods that make intensive use of labor.
The rights possessed by all individuals by virtue of being human, regardless of their status as citizens of particular states or members of a group or organization
individual level of analysis
Emphasizes interactions of influential individuals such as world leaders and other important figures. Analysts at this level often consider psychological factors
The ways in which the choices o two or more actors combine to produce political outcomes
what actors want to achieve through political action; their preferences over the outcomes that might result from their political choices
Monetary interactions that take occur between two or more countries; usually involves foreign direct investment or currency exchange rates
A body of rules that binds states and other agents in world politics and is considered to have the status of law
International Level of Analysis
Encompasses interactions between states or other actors in the international system.
International Political Economy
The academic disciple that analyzes the interaction between politics and economics within a global context
An intellectual disciple that examines the international outcomes and implication of political interaction
the exchange of goods and services across international borders
A war in which the main participants are states
Level of Analysis
Scales at which interactions and outcomes in global politics can be analyzed, which contain their own actors and can provide alternative explanations for the same phenomena
A theoretical perspective that stresses the importance of democracy, economic interdependence, and international institutions in achieving peaceful interactions between self-interested actors
A period of peace since the the Second World War
A theoretical perspective that views international politics as a struggle between classes for control of the modes of production, rather than a struggle between individual states
An economic doctrine based on a belief that military power and economic influence complemented each other; applied especially to colonial empire in the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. Mercantilist polices favored the mother country over its colonies and over its competitors
A strand of research in international relations that explicitly rejects systemic explanations of international interactions and tries instead to focus on one problem at a time, identifying the relevant assumptions, variables, actors, and casual mechanisms for that specific problem
Mutually Assured Destruction
Mutual deterrence between counties possessing nuclear weapons, based on the capacity of each to inflict major damage on the other in response to a first strike
Any right that exists simply by virtue of being human
The rights normally impose an obligation on other not to interfere with the liberty or independence of another holder of rights
a variant of realism that emphasizes the importance of self-help and relative capabilities under international anarchy
Perspective or analyses that are rooted in moral or prescriptive considerations
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
An international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
The value fo what is given up in order to achieve something else
The subset of liberal thought that examines the role of morality in international relations. Ethics serve as the basis for much international cooperation as well as international law
The rights normally impose an obligation on the state in satisfying the claims fo owners of rights
Scientific study that is divorced from moral consideration and seeks only to explain phenomena in light of objective laws or theories
The ability of one actor to get another actor to do something the other actor would otherwise not do
An actor's most favored interests
Treatise written by Niccolo Machiavelli, which serves as a guide in power politics and fundamental realist text
Rational Choice Theory
The idea that decision makers will always act as value maximizers and thus a state's actions are based on rational calculations in which policy options are assessed and valued.
Theory proposed by Immanuel Kant that no two republics will be likely to fight each other
A dilemma that arises when efforts that states make to defend themselves cause other states to feel less secure. This dilemma can lead to arms races and war due to fear of being attacked.
a central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws, rules, and decisions within a specified territory
State of Nature
Phrase coined by Thomas Hobbes that refers to the condition of man in the absence of government, otherwise known as anarchy
an actual or hypothetical agreement among the members of an organized society or between a community and its ruler that defines and limits the rights and duties of each
The expectation that states have legal and political supremacy-or ultimate authority- within their territorial boundaries.
The use or threatened use of violence against noncombatant targets by individuals or subnational groups, wit the goal of inspiring fear and hatred, for political ends
Government limitations on the international exchange of goods. Examples include tariffs, quantitative restrictions (quotas), import licenses, requirements that governments only buy domestically produced goods, and health and safety standards that discriminate against foreign goods.
Costs incurred from state in pursuit of particular goals, In economics, it refers to economic costs that can arise from arranging market relationships on a contractual basis
Transnational Level of Analysis
Emphasizes interactions between actors that operate across borders, such as multinational corporations, advocacy networks
The benefit an actor gets from making a particular decision
Derogatory term given to idealism by its realist critics, who decried it as unrealistic and the product of wishful thinking
A characteristic, number, or quantity that increases or decreases over time, or takes different values in different situations
An actor that has the ability to prevent the passage of a measure through a unilateral act, such as a single negative vote
World Trade Organization
An institution created in 1995 to succeed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and to govern international trade relations. The WTO encourages and polices the multilateral reduction of barriers to trade, and it oversees the resolution of trade disputes.
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