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Advanced Biology Chapter 6/7 review
Terms in this set (38)
chemical A has lost electrons to chemical B
In an experiment described in a chemistry lab book, the directions state that after mixing two chemicals (A and B) and waiting 5 minutes that A will be oxidized. This means that:
Anabolic reactions are endergonic reactions, whereas catabolic reactions are exergonic.
Metabolic reactions fall under two general categories: anabolic and catabolic. What type of chemical reactions are these two classes of metabolic reactions?
The phosphate groups of ATP are held together by unstable bonds that can be broken to release energy
Many metabolic pathways are ultimately concerned with ATP; either with the generation of ATP, or with the requirement of ATP for that pathway to function. Why is ATP so important to metabolism?
The energy needed to destabilize existing chemical bonds and start a chemical reaction is called
The amount of energy available to do work is called
the capacity to do work.
Energy is defined as
We can break down these macromolecules to provide energy for the endergonic reactions in our bodies.
Why do we have storage macromolecules, such as fats, in our bodies?
the second law of thermodynamics.
You return home to find that your baby brother has scattered his toy trains and trucks all over the floor of your room. As you begin to pick up the toys and put them away, you realize that even though he is just a baby, he has clearly mastered:
The organic non-protein components that aid in enzyme functioning are called
Oxidation and reduction reactions are chemical processes that result in a gain or loss of:
The reactants have more free energy than the products
A particular chemical reaction is exergonic. What can you say about the relationship between the reactants and the products in this exergonic reaction?
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Law of Thermodynamics that states that increases in entropy are favored is:
The First Law of Thermodynamics
The Law of Thermodynamics that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed is:
It is lost as heat
Glucose is broken down through cellular respiration, which involves a large number of chemical reactions. At the end of the cellular respiration process, a large number of ATP molecules are generated, but yet, not all of the possible energy that is contained in a molecule of glucose can be harnessed through these chemical reactions to generate ATP. In other words, during cellular respiration, not all of the energy that is contained in a molecule of glucose is converted into the energy stored in ATP. What happens to the remaining energy?
It would increase
If you were able to increase the kinetic energy of the molecules inside your body, how would this affect your body temperature?
The ultimate source of energy for humans comes from what source?
When an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be:
A calorie is the commonly used unit of chemical energy. It is also the unit of
The chemistry of living systems representing all chemical reactions is called
In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the reactant is called the
What is an end-product of glycolysis?
During the second oxidation in the Krebs cycle
The equation for cellular respiration is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O. At what specific point in the cellular respiration process has glucose been broken down completely from a six carbon molecule to 6 molecules of CO2?
This process is common to all living cells:
a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
In aerobic respiration, chemiosmotic generation of ATP is driven by:
What aspect of cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells?
Pyruvate oxidation in eukaryotic cells occurs in the ________.
2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP
What are the products of one turn of the Krebs cycle?
Organisms that can manufacture their own chemical energy are called ____________.
What is the net number of ATP generated directly during glycolysis per molecule of glucose?
Glycolysis coupled with lactate fermentation
When oxygen is unavailable during heavy exercise what process do muscle cells use for energy generation?
follow the electrons.
Your friend is having difficulty keeping track of the energy flow from glucose through glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport. Your best advice would be to
What stage of cellular respiration can occur in human cells with or without oxygen present?
Oxygen cannot accept electrons, and thus an electron carrier like NAD+ is needed.
Aerobic respiration involves the transfer of many electrons from glucose to electron carriers such as NAD+ over a series of multiple steps. Ultimately though, it is the reaction of glucose with oxygen to generate carbon dioxide, water and energy. Why doesn't glucose react directly with oxygen in cells?
Regardless of the electron or hydrogen acceptor used, one of the products of fermentation is always
In glycolysis, a major portion of the energy remains in the final product, which is called
In animals that take in oxygen from their environment, glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water in a process called
Organisms that depend on the energy stored in chemical bonds by other organisms for their food energy are called ____________.
All of the reactions of cellular respiration that occur after glycolysis take place in what part of the eukaryotic cell?
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