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Module 14 H World
Terms in this set (69)
identify the effects of the French Revolution of 1830 and 1848 for countries in Europe.
Each time there was revolution in France revolutions around Europe spread
compare and contrast the beliefs of conservatives, liberals and radicals during the early 180
Conservatives-nobles, monarchy, wanted the Old Order, in favor of the Congress of Vienna
Liberals-voting for upper middle class, nationalism, laissez faire ideals(government should stay out of the economy)
Radicals-for massive change, all male suffrage, pushing democracy and revolutions , wanted socialistic reforms for land and more equal economic opportunity
Congress of Vienna-goals, the political group that led it, how did it bring about revolutions?
Goal-to reestablish stability and security in Europe after Napoleon's reign
Conservatives put Monarchy's back in place
People that wanted democracy (liberals and radicals) did not want Monarchies and empires to control Europe
Universal male suffrage
All male voting
Radicals supported this
Identify and describe the ways in which Enlightenment ideas influenced liberal, social and political views in the early 1800s.
Enlightenment ideals called for government based on the will of the people through voting
liberals wanted constitutions and upper middle class voting
social-more economic opportunity, land availability
What is nationalism and its key components?
Nationalism -loyalty to ethnic/language group not a foreign king or empire
What reforms occured in France in 1830 and 1848?
1830-King Charles pushed out and gained a liberal King Louis Phillipe
1848- radical revolutionaries pushed out Louis Phillipe and brought on the Third Republic in France (similar structure to what France has today)
Third Republic in France
-Parliament (lawmaking body)
-sets up France as a republic
Austrian Empire-ruling family, different nationalities controlled, Balkan region
Hapsburgs were the ruling family, over 11 nationalities controlled
Balkan region was full of rebellions due to constant control from Ottoman and Austrian Empires
-Two kings-Austria had one and Hungary had one
-The Kings ruled in unison
Ottoman Empire-on the decline during the 1800's, nationalists revolts (Greece), attitude other European countries held toward the empire
Ottomans became weak due to nationalistic revolts
Other European countries did not support the Empire (it was the only Islamic Empire controlling territories in Europe)
Russian Empire-location and extent of control, type of leaders
Stretched from Europe to the Pacific controlled over 60 nationalities
Absolute Monarchs called Czars
Social class structure in Russia
-Serfs worked the land
Russification-policy and reaction to it
-Policy instituted by the Czar to make people more russian-forced Orthodox religion, language, and ideals
-Persecuted minority groups and religions
-People rebelled against it
Why did Alexander II free the serfs in Russia? Did it make society better? Why or why not?
-To free up labor for factories during the early industrial revolution
-No b/c serfs traded one crappy life for a different crappy factory life.
cite the similarities of the revolutionary movements in Northern Italy, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
They all failed due to strong armies putting them down
In the quotation "When Paris sneezes," Europe catches a cold," Metternich was referring to what events of his time. Explain what he was saying.
He was referring to the revolutions in 1830 and 1848 when France had revolutions erupt
What did Italy consist of before its unification in 1871?
Italians had a similar nationality through _____________________ which helped encourage unification.
Which city state led Italian unification and who were the leaders?
What did the territory of Germany consist of prior to their founding?
Part of Poland, Austria, and Prussia
Which city state led unification in for Germany?
Who was the first King or Kaiser of united Germany? Why him?
Kaiser (king) William or Wilhem
What was Bismark's role in uniting Germany? Know realpolitik
He was the Prime Minister that waged wars to secure the territory needed to bring Germany together
The overthrow of one government and its replacement with another
wealthy property owners and nobility. Wanted monarchy.
middle class/wealthy business owners and merchants. Wanted power to elected parliaments but only from votes of educated landowners. Wanted limited democracy
wanted drastic change to extend democracy to all people. Liberty, equality, and brotherhood. Want everyone to have a vote.
no government. some radicals thought government was harmful
territory reflects culture and way of life.
region that includes present day Turkey, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia
Who does / does not support nationalism ?
Liberals and radicals support nationalism; conservatives do not
Who ruled the Balkans ?
The Ottoman Empire had ruled the Balkans in southeastern Europe for 300 years.
How do greeks gain independence ?
Greece gets European help to gain independence from Turks
What happens as a result of the riots from the Third Republic ?
The rioters forced Charles to abdicate. Radicals wanted to form a republic, but
liberals insisted on a constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe.
- Napoleon's nephew who was elected president in France
- he later takes the title of emperor
- he promotes industrialization
How did Louis-Napoleon become emperor ?
Citizens voted for the seizure of power (plebiscite) because they thought he would restore order and a monarchy would be more stable
What was Louis-Napoleons downfall ?
His downfall was that he tried to get involved in to many foreign affairs and lost control of France
czar who determines to make social and economic changes
Why do czars fail to free serfs
because they fear losing landowners' support
What leads to Russias military defeat in Crimean War?
Russia's lack of industrialization
Biggest empires in Europe at the time
Russian, Ottoman, and Austrian
What does Nationalism cause in Europe ?
- Nationalism will cause some countries to
revolt and separate and divide empires
- Nationalism will cause other territories in Europe to unite into a nation-state. (Examples-Italy, Germany)
The ruling family in Austria
Austrian empire contained more than ____ different national groups.
Austrian Empire included much of _________ _________. Also, they lacked national and cultural unity.
Who revolted from the Austrian Empire and what was the result ?
- Hungarian nationalists revolted from the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire crushed revolt but decided to make the Austrian Empire into a dual monarchy.
- Result -> Austria-Hungary established
The spark that would end up setting off WWI
Fighting among nationalist groups threatened the unity of Austria-Hungary
True or False : The Ottomans were forced to grant equal citizenship to all people under their rule by the British and French.
True or False : European countries liked the idea of Muslims controlling Christian people in Europe.
False : they did NOT like that idea
The Ottoman Empire became what is present day ____________
Oppressive autocratic government
1 person ruler
What happens when Russia enacts reform in order to industrialize
It ends serfdom and this frees up workers for industry
- Russia was at war with Japan and suffered humiliating defeat
- Years of oppression and worker strikes led to protests pouring into the streets
- The Tsar sent soldiers outside of palace and killed hundreds of men and women
- The Tsar deserted the palace but, did agree to make some reforms
- Unfortunately, the reforms will not stop revolution by 1917.
One radical group that looked after the
working class were the ___________.
led by Vladimir Lenin and his ideas were based on Karl Marx teachings. (this group would eventually overthrow the czar, lead the Russian Revolution, and establish communism in Russia)
Before 1860, Italy was broken into small city states headed by _______________
Unification of Italy
- Groups of people ( Giuseppe Mazzini's Young Italy Group)come together unite Italian states (nationalism)
- Unification would bring together cultural barriers, transportation barriers and language barriers
Nationalism leads to a united Italy:
- Desire for a politically united country caused Italians to overthrow Austrian rule.
- Nationalists look to Sardinia as a unifying force
- Fighting starts and many people overthrow their rulers in city states and unite with Sardinia to become the nation of Italy.
- By 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy
True or False : Germany was the last of the great European powers to achieve complete political unity.
The Congress of Vienna had created what and why
the German Confederation in 1815 as a buffer against possible future French expansion.
The German Confederation
loosely tied together the numerous German states with a diet, or assembly, sitting at Frankfurt
How Prussia helped to unite Germany :
- Wilhelm I came to power in Prussia
- Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismark as Prime Minister.
- Both leaders believed in a strong government and military to unite German states under Prussian control.
Otto Von Bismarck
- He became prime minister in 1862
- determined to unite Germany under Prussian rule and used a policy of "blood and iron" to do so
- ( used wars ) to achieve unification
realistic politics based on the needs of the state
True or False : 1871 William I became Kaiser or emperor of German states
Wars that helped to unite Germany :
• War against Denmark-Prussia vs. Denmark
• Seven Weeks War-Prussia vs. Austria
• Franco Prussian War-Prussia vs. France
What did leaders in many German states urged William I of Prussia to do?
to take the title Kaiser (emporer)
What did Bismarck write when Germany was declared independent ?
He wrote a constitution and set up a two-house legislature. However, real power remained with the emperor and chancellor.
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