The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) Court ruled that segregation in public facilities was not unconstitutional as long as the facilities were substantially equal "separate but equal"
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954) the Court held that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Made racial discrimination illegal in hotels, motels, restaurants, and other places of public accommodation. Also forbade many forms of job discrimination.
(1870) guaranteed African Americans the right to vote, but full implementation did not occur for another century.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
prohibited any government from using voting procedures that denied a person the vote on the basis of race or color.
(1964) Prohibited poll taxes in the federal elections
Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections
(1966) Invalidated poll taxes in state elections
legal doctrine that deprived married women of any identity separate from that of their husbands
(1920) gave women the right to vote
Reed v. Reed
(1971) the Court ruled that any "arbitrary" sex-based classification violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (marking the first time the Court applied the Fourteenth Amendment to a case involving classification by sex).
Craig v. Boren
(1976) established a "medium scrutiny" standard: Gender discrimination would be presumed to be neither valid nor invalid.
Refers to the fact that traditional women's jobs often pay much less than men's jobs that demand comparable skill, the Courts have remained silent so far on this issue
Faragher v. City of Boca Raton
The Court made it clear that employers are responsible for preventing and eliminating harassment at work.
Gray Liberation Movement
eople in their eighties comprise the fastest growing age group in this country.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Requires employers and public facilities to provide "reasonable accommodations" and prohibits employment discrimination against the disabled.
policies requiring special efforts in employment, promotion, or school admissions on behalf of disadvantaged groups. The goal of affirmative action is to move beyond equal opportunity toward equal results.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
(1978) the Supreme Court rejected a plan at the University of California at Davis that set aside 16 out of a total of 100 places in the entering class for "disadvantaged groups."
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
the Court held that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
Gratz v. Bollinger
(2003), the court struck down the University of Michigan's system of undergraduate admissions in which every applicant from an underrepresented racial or ethnic minority group was automatically awarded 20 points of the 100 needed to guarantee admission
Equal protection of the law
allows states to treat citizens differently if the classification is reasonable
The Civil Rights and Women's Equity in Employment Act of 1991
shifted the burden of proof in justifying hiring and promotion practices to employers
a situation in which minority groups will outnumber Caucasians of European descent.
From 1920 to 1960 public policy toward women was dominated by this