Chapter 5:The American Revolution

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The French played a vital role in the colonists' victory at
Yorktown.
The greatest single American loss in the war was at
Charleston, South Carolina.
T/F
During the Revolution, the British army freed more slaves than did the colonists.
True
T/F
By early 1777, George Washington realized that the Americans could defeat the British only in a war of attrition.
True
T/F
Britain was the leading military power in the American Revolution.
True
The American Revolution led to the following change in religion:
a. greater separation of church and state.
b. the creation of national church organizations.
c. complete freedom of religion.
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Under the government of the Articles of Confederation,
the central government, rather than the states, had control over foreign relations.
In the battles at Trenton and Princeton, George Washington gambled because
he feared that without a victory, his soldiers would leave the army
T/F
As a result of the American Revolution, all states adopted universal male suffrage.
False
T/F
The British controlled New York throughout the war.
True
In 1778, George Rogers Clark and his soldiers
scored major victories on the frontier for the Patriots.
T/F
All Native American nations allied themselves with the Patriots during the Revolutionary War.
False
As a result of the American Revolution, women gained
few new social, political, or economic rights.
After the decisive Battle of Saratoga,
a. Lord North knew the war was unwinnable.
b. France aligned with the colonists.
c. the king still refused to make peace.
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
T/F
The Americans owed much of their success to the African American unit known as the "Ethiopian Regiment."
False
T/F
Spain entered the war as an ally of the Americans.
False
T/F
Americans began celebrating July 4 only after independence had been achieved at the end of the Revolutionary War.
False
Which of the following lists of events is presented in the correct chronological order?
Battle of Saratoga, capture of Charleston, Battle of Yorktown
Among the foreigner volunteers who fought with the Americans was
the Marquis de Lafayette.
In late 1778, the British shifted their military focus to the South because they
expected great Tory support there.
T/F
Between 1777 and 1780, Benedict Arnold switched from fighting for the British to supporting the colonists.
False
T/F
One of the most able of Washington's generals was the Quaker Nathanael Greene.
True
More than he feared the British, by 1777 George Washington worried about
Smallpox
According to the Peace of Paris
the United States controlled the territory between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River.
T/F
The war's turning point in the South was the Battle of Kings Mountain.
True
"I have not yet begun to fight," said
John Paul Jones after winning a sea battle with the British.
T/F
Benjamin Franklin was one of the commissioners who negotiated the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War.
True
T/F
In the state constitutions framed during the Revolution, the powers of the governor were usually increased in order to maintain order.
False
T/F
In 1778 Parliament granted all of the colonies' demands except independence.
True
Among the Americans, the Tories (or Loyalists)
frustrated the British by their weakness and disorganization.
George Washington (1732-1799)
In 1775, the Continental Congress named him the commander in chief of the Continental Army. He had previously served as an officer in the French and Indian War, but had never commanded a large unit. Initially, his army was poorly supplied and inexperienced, which led to repeated defeats. Washington realized that he could only defeat the British through wearing them down, and he implemented a strategy of evasion and selective confrontations. Gradually, the army developed into an effective force and, with the aid of the French, defeated the British. In 1787, he was the presiding officer over the Constitutional Convention, but participated little in the debates. In 1789, the Electoral College chose Washington to be the nation's first president. He assembled a cabinet of brilliant minds, which included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. Together, they would lay the foundations of American government and capitalism. Washington faced the nation's first foreign and domestic crises. In 1793, the British and French were at war. Washington chose to keep America neutral in the conflict even though France and the United States had signed a treaty of alliance. A year later, the Whiskey Rebellion erupted in Pennsylvania, and Washington sent militiamen to suppress the rebels. After two terms in office, Washington chose to step down; and the power of the presidency was peacefully passed to John Adams. (page 214)
Continental army
Army authorized by the Continental Congress, 1775-1784, to fight the British; commanded by General George Washington. (page 214)
General William Howe (1729-1814)
As the commander of the British army in the Revolutionary War, he seized New York City from Washington's army, but failed to capture it. He missed several more opportunities to quickly end the rebellion, and he resigned his command after the British defeat at Saratoga. (page 214)
Your Answer
Tories
Term used by Patriots to refer to Loyalists, or colonists who supported the Crown after the Declaration of Independence. (page 215)
General John Burgoyne (1722-1792)
He was the commander of Britain's northern forces during the Revolutionary War. He and most of his troops surrendered to the Americans at the Battle of Saratoga. (page 221)
Saratoga, Battle of
Major defeat of British general John Burgoyne and more than 5,000 British troops at Saratoga, New York, on October 17, 1777. (page 224)
Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834)
A wealthy French idealist excited by the American cause, he offered to serve in Washington's army for free in exchange for being named a major general. He overcame Washington's initial skepticism to become one of his most trusted aides. (page 227)
Joseph Brant (1742?-1807)
He was the Mohawk leader who led the Iroquois against the Americans in the Revolutionary War. (page 228)
General Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805)
He was in charge of British troops in the South during the Revolutionary War. His surrendering to George Washington at the Battle of Yorktown ended the Revolutionary War. (page 230)
General Nathanael Greene (1742-1786)
He was appointed by Congress to command the American army fighting in the South during the Revolutionary War. Using his patience and his skills of managing men, saving supplies, and avoiding needless risks, he waged a successful war of attrition against the British. (page 231)
Benedict Arnold (1741-1801)
A traitorous American commander who planned to sell out the American garrison at West Point to the British, but his plot was discovered before it could be executed and he joined the British army. (page 233)
surrender at Yorktown
Last battle of the Revolutionary War; General Lord Charles Cornwallis along with over 7,000 British troops surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia, on October 17, 1781. (page 234)
John Adams (1735-1826)
He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congress. During the Revolutionary War, he worked as a diplomat in France and Holland and negotiated the peace treaty with Britain. After the Revolutionary War, he served as the minister to Britain as well as the vice president and the second president of the United States. As president, he passed the Alien and Sedition Acts and endured a stormy relationship with France, which included the XYZ affair. (page 237)
Abigail Adams (1744-1818)
As the wife of John Adams, she endured long periods of separation from him while he served in many political roles. During these times apart, she wrote often to her husband; and their correspondence has provided a detailed portrait of life during the Revolutionary War. (page 246)
General Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown, Virginia
1781
Battle of Saratoga; General Burgoyne surrenders
1777
Americans and French from an alliance
1778
Washington's troops winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
1777-1778
Battles of Cow pens and Guilford Courthouse
1781
General Washington's troops cross the Delaware River; Battle of Trenton
1776
Articles of Confederation are ratified
1781
Washington's troops winter at Morristown, New Jersey
1776-1777
Virginia adopts the Statute of Religious Freedom
1786
Treaty of Paris signed
1783
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