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Unit 2 Causes of the First World War
Terms in this set (47)
Long 19th Century
the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
agreements between nations to aid and protect one another
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
a war fought with limited commitment of resources to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
war of attrition
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
balance of power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries; distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Theory of some nations that big trade surpluses make them rich; encouraged imperialism
maintenance of military power for the purpose of discouraging an attack
Scramble for Africa
Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa.
Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
a meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa
compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces.
Anglo-German naval race
After the invention of the Dreadnought class battleship in Britain in 1906, all previous battleships became obsolete. When Germany started building dreadnoughts, it was seen as a threatening move by Britain, who had to build twice as many as Germany in order to maintain the "two power standard" (a navy as large as the next two larges navies put together), which she regarded as vital to her security. This challenge damaged relations between Britain and Germany because Britain distrusted German intentions and Germany resented Britain's trying to stop them expanding their navy.
A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets.
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Prussian chancellor who employed diplomacy and industrialized warfare and manipulation of democracy to unify Germany, and maintained the balance of power through a complex system of alliances aimed at isolating France
Dual Alliance (1879)
The alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary pledging mutual aid if Russia attacked one of them. The foundation of German foreign policy.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
Franco-Russian Alliance (1894)
France and Russia were fearful of Germany, so they signed an agreement pledging support for each other in a war.
Entente Cordiale (1904)
A "friendly understanding" between Britain and France.
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Emperor of Germany during World War I
"World politics". The policy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies, the dream of William II.
Moroccan Crisis of 1905
William II declared Morocco independent, rattling the cage of France and putting much of the West on notice about German territorial ambitions.
Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)
France puts down a rebellion in Morocco giving Germany an excuse to extort colonial territory to "protect German citizens"
the group of people in southeastern Europe who were the same ethnic group as the Russians
a movement to create a nation state of Slavic people
Balkan nations of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro that declared war on the Ottoman Empire
First Balkan War
1912 -Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory--a dispute that led in 1913 to the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
1913 - A conflict that broke out when Bulgaria, unsatisfied with its gained territory, attacked its neighbors, Serbia and Greece, after the First Balkan War. During the conflict, Romania entered the conflict and the Ottoman Empire was able to regain some of their lost territory.
Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Austria annexed these two Balkan areas with large Slavic populations; Serbia was infuriated because it had intended to annex those provinces; Russians offered to back Serbia in war against Austria but, not being ready for war, had to back down after being faced by the German-Austrian Alliance
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
This was the spark that started World War I. Archduke Ferdinand, the Austrian crown prince, was murdered on June 28, 1914, by a Serbian nationalist while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. Germany urged Austria-Hungary to fight and they went to war against Serbia; all of this due to Serbia wanting to expand
Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Young Bosnians
Conrad von Hotzendorff
(1852-1925) Chief of the Austrian staffs who argued for an attack on Serbia in response to the assassination plot against Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
Leopold von Berchtold
After the assassination of the Archduke, Austrian Count Berchtold seized the opportunity to launch punitive action against Serbia and deal the country a mortal blow.
Germany gave Austria-Hungary the Blank Cheque, which meant that Germany would support Austria-Hungary, even if it mean going to war
Tsar Nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin.
Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to aqcuire "living room" (Lebensraum).
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schlieffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary issued stern demands for Serbia to agree to to avoid war... Serbia complied to most but not all of the Ultimatum... A-H was not satisfied = declared war & invaded Serbia
July Crisis of 1914
A month long crisis from the time of the Archduke's assassination to the first declaration of war in which no one was entirely sure as to what would happen
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
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