Physical Science Chapter 12
Terms in this set (78)
A______ is a push or a pull that acts on an object
A force can cause a resting object to move, or it can accelerate a moving object by changing the object's direction
How do forces affect the motion of an object?
The stretch of the spring in a scale depends on the amount of ________ (a type of force) acting on it
One _________ is the force that causes 1-kilogram mass to accelerate at a rate of 1 meter per second each second (1m/s^2)
1 kg. times m/s^2
_____ can represent force. The lengths of the _____ show relative amounts of force
When the forces on an object are _______, the net force is ______ and there is no change in the object's motion
When an _______ force acts on an object, the object ________
Balanced forces are forces that ________ to produce a net force of zero.
An ________ number of individual forces can act on an object to produce a net for of zero
When playing tug-a-rope, the two groups pull with __________ forces in opposite directions. The forces combine to make a net force of zero
An unbalanced force is a force that results where the ________ acting on the object is not equal to zero
Forces can _____ together or _____ from one another
________ is a force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other
static friction, sliding friction, rolling friction, and fluid friction
What are the four main types of friction?
_______ is the friction force that acts on objects that are not moving. ______ always acts in the direction opposite to that of the applied force
________ is a force that opposes the direction of motion of an object as it slides over a surface. ______ is less than static friction
________ is the friction force that acts on rolling objects. The force of _________ is about 100 to 1000 times less than the force of static or sliding friction
Fluid friction;air resistance
________ opposes the motion of an object through a fluid. ______ acting on an object moving through the air is known as _______. _______ increases as the speed of the object moving through the fluid increases
Earth's gravity acts downward toward the center of the Earth
In what direction does Earth's gravity act?
Gravity causes objects to accelerate downward whereas air resistance acts in the direction opposite to the motion and reduces acceleration
How do gravity and air resistance affect a falling object?
________ is a force that acts between any two masses
Gravity is an ______ force
Gravity can act over ______ distances
Earth exerts an attractive, downward force on this boulder. The supporting rock exerts an upward force on the boulder. The forces are _________
gravity and air resistance
Both _____ and ______ affect the motion of a falling object
As objects fall to the ground, they _____ and gain speed
_________ is the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance equals the force of gravity
The combination of an initial forward velocity and the downward vertical force of gravity causes the ball to follow a curved path
Why does a projectile follow a curved path?
A thrown ball follows a ______
_________ is the motion of a falling object after it is given an initial forward velocity
Air resistance and gravity
_______ and _______ are the only forces acting on a projectile
mass and force
Newton first defined _____ and _________
How does Newton's first law relate change in motion to a zero net force?
According to Newton's first law of motion, the state of motion of an object does not ______ as long as the net force acting on the object is ________
Unless an unbalanced force acts, an object at rest remains at ______
Unless an unbalanced force acts, an object in motion _______ in motion with the same speed and direction
________ is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
acceleration; net force; mass
How does Newton's second law relate force, mass, and acceleration?
According to Newton's second law of motion, the ______ of an object is equal to the ______ acting on it divided by the object's _______
The acceleration of an object is directly ________ to the net force acting on it
The acceleration of an object also depends upon its ______
________ is the measure of the inertia of an object
The acceleration of an object is always in the _____ direction as the net force
When a net force acts in the direction opposite to the object's motion, the force produces a _____
How are weight and mass related?
_______ is a measure of the inertia of an object. ______ is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object
Mass and weight are _____ but are not the same
______ is the measure of the amount of material an object contains
_________ is the force of gravity acting on an object
Weight is the _______ mass and acceleration due to gravity
exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object
What is Newton's third law of motion?
According to Newton's third law of motion, whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object ________________________
The force your bumper car exerts on the other car is the ______ force
The force the other car exerts on your car is the _______ force
These two forces (action and reaction forces) are equal in size and _____ in direction
_______ forces propel a swimmer through the water. The swimmer pushes against the water, and the water pushes the swimmer
The action and reaction forces do not act on the same object
For the swimmer, why do the action and reaction forces not cancel each other and produce a net force of zero?
_________ is the product of an object's mass and its velocity
mass and velocity
An object has a large momentum if the product of its ______ and _____ is large
Mass is measured in ___________
meters per second
Velocity is measured in _________
kilogram-meters per second
Momentum is measured in _____________
a closed system means other objects and forces cannot enter or leave a system
How is momentum conserved?
law of conservation of momentum
According to the ____________, if no net force acts on a system, then the total momentum of the system does not change
certain universal forces are _______ present
electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, gravitational
The universal forces that are always present are:
Force is affected by the ________ between particles
electric force and magnetic force are the only forces that can both attract and repel
What force can attract and repel?
electric and magnetic
_____ and ______ forces are two different aspects of the electromagnetic force
Electromagnetic force is associated with ________ particles
Objects with opposite charges _______ one another
Objects with like charges ______ one another
Magnetic forces act on: certain _________, the ______ of magnets, and moving charges
north and south
Magnets have two poles- _______ and _________
Two poles that are opposite ______ one another
Two poles that are alike _____ each other
What force holds the nucleus together?
Two forces, the ______ nuclear force and the ______ nuclear force
What is Newton's law of universal gravitation?
It states that every object in the universe ______ every other object
The moon's inertia acts to move it_______ from Earth
Earth's gravitational attraction keeps the moon in a nearly ________ around Earth
A _________ force is a center-directed force that continuously changed the direction of an object to make it move in a circle
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