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Physical Science Chapter 12
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Gravity
Terms in this set (78)
force
A______ is a push or a pull that acts on an object
A force can cause a resting object to move, or it can accelerate a moving object by changing the object's direction
How do forces affect the motion of an object?
The stretch of the spring in a scale depends on the amount of ________ (a type of force) acting on it
weight
newton
One _________ is the force that causes 1-kilogram mass to accelerate at a rate of 1 meter per second each second (1m/s^2)
1 kg. times m/s^2
1 N
arrows
_____ can represent force. The lengths of the _____ show relative amounts of force
balanced; zero
When the forces on an object are _______, the net force is ______ and there is no change in the object's motion
unbalanced; accelerates
When an _______ force acts on an object, the object ________
combine
Balanced forces are forces that ________ to produce a net force of zero.
unlimited
An ________ number of individual forces can act on an object to produce a net for of zero
equal
When playing tug-a-rope, the two groups pull with __________ forces in opposite directions. The forces combine to make a net force of zero
net force
An unbalanced force is a force that results where the ________ acting on the object is not equal to zero
add; subtract
Forces can _____ together or _____ from one another
friction
________ is a force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other
static friction, sliding friction, rolling friction, and fluid friction
What are the four main types of friction?
Static friction
_______ is the friction force that acts on objects that are not moving. ______ always acts in the direction opposite to that of the applied force
Sliding friction
________ is a force that opposes the direction of motion of an object as it slides over a surface. ______ is less than static friction
Rolling friction
________ is the friction force that acts on rolling objects. The force of _________ is about 100 to 1000 times less than the force of static or sliding friction
Fluid friction;air resistance
________ opposes the motion of an object through a fluid. ______ acting on an object moving through the air is known as _______. _______ increases as the speed of the object moving through the fluid increases
Earth's gravity acts downward toward the center of the Earth
In what direction does Earth's gravity act?
Gravity causes objects to accelerate downward whereas air resistance acts in the direction opposite to the motion and reduces acceleration
How do gravity and air resistance affect a falling object?
gravity
________ is a force that acts between any two masses
attractive
Gravity is an ______ force
large
Gravity can act over ______ distances
balanced
Earth exerts an attractive, downward force on this boulder. The supporting rock exerts an upward force on the boulder. The forces are _________
gravity and air resistance
Both _____ and ______ affect the motion of a falling object
accelerate
As objects fall to the ground, they _____ and gain speed
Terminal velocity
_________ is the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance equals the force of gravity
The combination of an initial forward velocity and the downward vertical force of gravity causes the ball to follow a curved path
Why does a projectile follow a curved path?
curved path
A thrown ball follows a ______
projectile motion
_________ is the motion of a falling object after it is given an initial forward velocity
Air resistance and gravity
_______ and _______ are the only forces acting on a projectile
mass and force
Newton first defined _____ and _________
change; zero
How does Newton's first law relate change in motion to a zero net force?
According to Newton's first law of motion, the state of motion of an object does not ______ as long as the net force acting on the object is ________
rest
Unless an unbalanced force acts, an object at rest remains at ______
remains
Unless an unbalanced force acts, an object in motion _______ in motion with the same speed and direction
Inertia
________ is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
acceleration; net force; mass
How does Newton's second law relate force, mass, and acceleration?
According to Newton's second law of motion, the ______ of an object is equal to the ______ acting on it divided by the object's _______
proportional
The acceleration of an object is directly ________ to the net force acting on it
mass
The acceleration of an object also depends upon its ______
mass
________ is the measure of the inertia of an object
same
The acceleration of an object is always in the _____ direction as the net force
deceleration
When a net force acts in the direction opposite to the object's motion, the force produces a _____
mass; weight
How are weight and mass related?
_______ is a measure of the inertia of an object. ______ is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object
related
Mass and weight are _____ but are not the same
mass
______ is the measure of the amount of material an object contains
weight
_________ is the force of gravity acting on an object
product
Weight is the _______ mass and acceleration due to gravity
exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object
What is Newton's third law of motion?
According to Newton's third law of motion, whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object ________________________
action
The force your bumper car exerts on the other car is the ______ force
reaction
The force the other car exerts on your car is the _______ force
opposite
These two forces (action and reaction forces) are equal in size and _____ in direction
Action-reaction
_______ forces propel a swimmer through the water. The swimmer pushes against the water, and the water pushes the swimmer
The action and reaction forces do not act on the same object
For the swimmer, why do the action and reaction forces not cancel each other and produce a net force of zero?
Momentum
_________ is the product of an object's mass and its velocity
mass and velocity
An object has a large momentum if the product of its ______ and _____ is large
kilograms
Mass is measured in ___________
meters per second
Velocity is measured in _________
kilogram-meters per second
Momentum is measured in _____________
a closed system means other objects and forces cannot enter or leave a system
How is momentum conserved?
law of conservation of momentum
According to the ____________, if no net force acts on a system, then the total momentum of the system does not change
always
certain universal forces are _______ present
electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, gravitational
The universal forces that are always present are:
________
_________
_______
_________
distance
Force is affected by the ________ between particles
electric force and magnetic force are the only forces that can both attract and repel
What force can attract and repel?
electric and magnetic
_____ and ______ forces are two different aspects of the electromagnetic force
charged
Electromagnetic force is associated with ________ particles
attract
Objects with opposite charges _______ one another
repel
Objects with like charges ______ one another
metals; poles
Magnetic forces act on: certain _________, the ______ of magnets, and moving charges
north and south
Magnets have two poles- _______ and _________
attract
Two poles that are opposite ______ one another
repel
Two poles that are alike _____ each other
strong; weak
What force holds the nucleus together?
Two forces, the ______ nuclear force and the ______ nuclear force
attracts
What is Newton's law of universal gravitation?
It states that every object in the universe ______ every other object
away
The moon's inertia acts to move it_______ from Earth
circular orbit
Earth's gravitational attraction keeps the moon in a nearly ________ around Earth
centripetal
A _________ force is a center-directed force that continuously changed the direction of an object to make it move in a circle
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