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32 terms

Sociology (Race and Ethnicity)

STUDY
PLAY
Race
is a socially constructed category composed of people who share similar traits that members of a society consider important.
Ethnicity
is a shared cultural heritage.
Ethnic Work
refers to how ethnicity is constructed and includes enhancing and maintaning a group's distictiveness or attempting to recover ethnic heritage.
Minority
is a category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged.
Stereotype
is an oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group or social stratum.
Discrimination
is unfair treatment directed toward someone.
Individual Discrimination
is negative treatment of one person by another person
Institutional Discrimination
is negative treatment of a minority group that is built into society's institutions.
Prejudice
is a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people that are usually negative, although they can be positive.
Racism
is the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, or member of that group, as intellectually, socially and culturally inferior to one's own group.
Five Forms of Racism
-Old-fashioned or traditional
-Aversive
-Laissez-faire
-Color-blind
-Institutional
Old-fashion or traditional racism
is overt racism such as physical assaults, beatings, and lynchings
Aversive racism
this type of racism is subtle, covert and nonobvious
Laissez-faire racism
this racism involves subtle persistent negative stereotyping, blaming minorities for the gaps between races, and resistance to policy efforts aimed at alleviating oppressive social conditions and practices.
Color-blind racism
this racism is when color is ignored and expected to go away if ignored by everyone
Institutional racism
is a form of racism by society's existing institutions racial profiling is an example of this type of racism.
Two Theories of Prejudice
-Pychological Perspectives
-Socialogical Perspectives
Scapegoat Theory
(pychological perspectives)
-holds that prejudice results from frustrations among people who are themselves disadvantaged.
authoritatian personality theory
(pychological perspectives)
-veiws prejudice as a personality trait in certain individuals.
Conflict Theory of Prejudice
(Sociological Perspectives)
-proposes that powerful people use prejudice to justify oppressing others.
Pluralism/multiculturalism
permits or encourages ethnic variation
(Pattern of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)
Assimilation
a term that is used by sociologists to describe the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category.
Two types of assimilation
-Forced and Permissive assimilation

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)
Forced Assimilation
this assimilation occurs when the dominant group prohibits the minority from using its own, religion, language, and costoms.
Permissive Assimilation
is when the minority adopts the dominant group's patterns in its own way and/or at its own speed.
Segregation
is the formal physical and social separation of categories of people

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)
Genocide
is the actual or attempted systematic annihilation of a race or ethnic group that is labeled as less than fully human.

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)
Population Transfer
is involuntary movement of a minority group.

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)
Two types of Population Transfer
-Indirect Transfer
-Direct Transfer
Indirect Transfer
involves making life so unbearable that members of a minority then leave.
Direct Transfer
involves forced expulsion
Colonialism
is a society's policy of exploring a minority by using social institutions to deny it access to full benifits. Slavery is an extrem example.

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)