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is a socially constructed category composed of people who share similar traits that members of a society consider important.


is a shared cultural heritage.

Ethnic Work

refers to how ethnicity is constructed and includes enhancing and maintaning a group's distictiveness or attempting to recover ethnic heritage.


is a category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged.


is an oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group or social stratum.


is unfair treatment directed toward someone.

Individual Discrimination

is negative treatment of one person by another person

Institutional Discrimination

is negative treatment of a minority group that is built into society's institutions.


is a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people that are usually negative, although they can be positive.


is the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, or member of that group, as intellectually, socially and culturally inferior to one's own group.

Five Forms of Racism

-Old-fashioned or traditional

Old-fashion or traditional racism

is overt racism such as physical assaults, beatings, and lynchings

Aversive racism

this type of racism is subtle, covert and nonobvious

Laissez-faire racism

this racism involves subtle persistent negative stereotyping, blaming minorities for the gaps between races, and resistance to policy efforts aimed at alleviating oppressive social conditions and practices.

Color-blind racism

this racism is when color is ignored and expected to go away if ignored by everyone

Institutional racism

is a form of racism by society's existing institutions racial profiling is an example of this type of racism.

Two Theories of Prejudice

-Pychological Perspectives
-Socialogical Perspectives

Scapegoat Theory

(pychological perspectives)
-holds that prejudice results from frustrations among people who are themselves disadvantaged.

authoritatian personality theory

(pychological perspectives)
-veiws prejudice as a personality trait in certain individuals.

Conflict Theory of Prejudice

(Sociological Perspectives)
-proposes that powerful people use prejudice to justify oppressing others.


permits or encourages ethnic variation
(Pattern of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)


a term that is used by sociologists to describe the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category.

Two types of assimilation

-Forced and Permissive assimilation

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)

Forced Assimilation

this assimilation occurs when the dominant group prohibits the minority from using its own, religion, language, and costoms.

Permissive Assimilation

is when the minority adopts the dominant group's patterns in its own way and/or at its own speed.


is the formal physical and social separation of categories of people

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)


is the actual or attempted systematic annihilation of a race or ethnic group that is labeled as less than fully human.

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)

Population Transfer

is involuntary movement of a minority group.

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)

Two types of Population Transfer

-Indirect Transfer
-Direct Transfer

Indirect Transfer

involves making life so unbearable that members of a minority then leave.

Direct Transfer

involves forced expulsion


is a society's policy of exploring a minority by using social institutions to deny it access to full benifits. Slavery is an extrem example.

(Patterns of Interaction between Majority and Minority Groups)

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