The study of humankind. (the study of human culture)
AD 661-650. Capital: Damascus Spread of Islam throughout Arab world; middle east, north Africa, Moorish Spain
AD 750 when Baghdad was founded, when the switch occurred AD 750-1258, Capital: Baghdad; guardians of Classical learning; Baghdad is center of enlightened culture
The study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data which they have left behind. Subdiscipline of Anthropology.
Islamic holy book written by Muhammad after he was supposedly visited from the angel Gabriel
The "Bible"of the Hebrew people. It is the first 5 books of Moses which are : Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. it was revealed to Moses at Mount Sinai
The Christians guide to life. It has the works of the Old Testament and New Testament. NT is when Jesus comes and after his death and resurrection. OT is more about the Israelites and their relationship with God.
A coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena
Sunni and Shia Islam
Two of the 3 main branches of Islam. Sunni believe that anyone can be the next descendant of Muhammad, whereas Shia Islam believe it should be a blood relative of some sort.
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Empirical data scientist expects if hypothesis is correct or not
1st Pillar of Faith - Declaration of Faith: "there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger."
2nd Pillar of Faith - Prayer five times a day in the direction of the Ka 'abah in Mecca. Prayers are performed at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and night; as signated by muezzins singing the call to prayer, which begins "Allahu akbar;"
3rd Pillar of Faith - Fasting during Ramadan (on the lunar calendar); abstain from food, drink, tobacco, sex during daylight hours. Commemorates the first revelation of the Qu 'ran; unifying and spiritually purifying. End of Ramadan celebrated as Eid al-Fitr, Feast of Breaking the Fast
4th Pillar of Faith - Alms-giving (tithing) to the poor and needy, normally at the end of Ramadan (ideally 2.5% of wealth)
5th Pillar of Faith - Pilgrimage to Mecca during month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Expected at least once in lifetime. If unable, many sponsor someone to go in their place. A village may pool their money to pay the way for one individual to go on behalf of all. The end of Dhu al-Hijjah celebrated as Eid al-Aida, Feast of the Sacrifice.
Word used to mark the end of the Israelites having a homeland. Started in the Iron Age after the first Temple was destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar (Babylonian King) and ended in 1948 when WWII ended.
Arabic world meaning migration or flight. From Medina to Mecca.
The outward push of the Mongol Empire. The siege and capture of Baghdad in 1258 is considered the single most catastrophic event in Islam's history.
A major branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, Babylonian. modern and ancient languages.
A Semitic language spoken in the Middle East
A Semitic language spoken by the Israelites. Old Testament in bible is written in this language.
Dead Sea Scrolls
Hundreds of thousands of fragments found in the 1940's - on in the city of Qumran near the shore of the Dead Sea (where it gets its name).
Ancient language spoken by Jesus.
3500 - 1200 BC, consisted of first fortified settlements - TOWNS. The primary group of people associated with the Bronze age are the Canaanites.
Manual of Discipline
Written for small communities of Israelites intentionally living in poverty in the outskirts of town (in the desert) waiting for the Messiah to come. They believed he would arrive at any time. Purpose for manual was to set forth rules for living out there like how to share the water, etc. Non-biblical Dead Sea Scrolls.
1200 - 586 BC - time we see developments of Kingdoms in Ancient Israel. Primary group of people - Israelites. Canaanites didn't play a strong political role during Iron Age. Philistines...
Letter to Jerusalem
Letter sent from the small groups of people living in the desert awaiting the Messiah's arrival to the people living in the town of Jerusalem. -The letter contained a series of complaints and accusations about the way they were living in the town and saying they should all live in the desert because it was the correct thing to do.
An apocalyptic scroll about what will happen at the end of time. Also, found parts of the old testament. Essence wrote one them. Often associated with Qumran.
The post it note of ancient time; A broken piece of pottery that has things inscribed on it. More specifically, An ostracon is a piece of pottery (or stone), usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel. In archaeology, ostraca may contain scratched-in words or other forms of writing which may give clues as to the time when the piece was in use. The word is derived from Greek ostrakon, meaning a shell or a shard of pottery used as a voting ballot. (courtesy of wikipedia)
The Sabaean people were South Arabian people. Each of these had regional kingdoms in ancient Yemen, with the Minaeans in the north along the Red sea
Used as incense and perfumes. Was precious in Bible times. Get it from resin in certain tree types.
Is the resin from a certain species of trees. They are only found in the Arabian peninsula and was more precious then gold in Bible times. It was presented to Jesus in the NT.
Three ecological zones the coast with fishing, pastoralism, and agriculture.
Time of fasting for Muslims.
The Eastern Roman Empire split off with Emperor Constantine and became predominately Christian... In Turkey
Was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean... Destruction of Herodian temple Flavia Silva - roman officer Flavia Josephus- was offered a deal.
South Arabian Ecological Zones
pastoralism, agriculture, and fishing(Coastal)
Historical name of the Levant. Canaanites. Eastern side of Mediterranean sea now Israel
That was previously known as the "Holy Land," "Walls came tumbling down' It is known in Judeo-Christian tradition as the place of the Israelites' return from bondage in Egypt, led by Joshua, the successor to Moses. NW of the dead sea South Jerusalem
Land of Israel named Judea after Roman occupation
The area encompassing and surrounding modern day Israel. The Holy Land and fertile crescent
Kingdom of Israel
In the Fertile Crescent. They are God's chosen people. God used Moses to deliver them from slave life in Egypt to Israel
Triangular peninsula in Egypt that lies between Mediterranean Sea to North, and Red Sea to South. Moses led his people through here.
The mountain where Moses stood and spoke to God and received the 10 commandments.
First Temple - built by King Salomon as a way to unify the Israelites by building them a worship temple. Destination of the arc of the covenant.
Second Temple - built by Ezra, expanded by Herod
Derived from the word Philistines meaning uncultured. Philistines were not liked by Israelites but after the second temple was destroyed by the Romans, as a way of delegitimation, the Romans names the place: Land of Philistines. Thus, Palestines were born.
Made the capitol of Ancient Israel by King David. Temples were built here.
Capital of Iraq; founded in AD 750
Essenes impaired to remove their-selves away from Jerusalem. Settlement nearest to the cave where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found.
Herodian Palace, Mass Suicides
On the Arabian peninsula below Saudi Arabia. Best evidence for settlements in Bronze Age. In late 70s they built a new dam that was based off of features of ancient on. Used in agriculture.
Ancient city in Oman, capital of the Qataban kingdom, part of the incense route
Yemen, where the Great Dam was built, was capital of the Saba's kingdom of Queen Sheba; Traded frankincense
Syria, capital of Umayyad Caliphate
The city that Muhammad and his followers fled to, where he was buried, 2nd holiest city in Islam, present day Saudi Arabia
Yemen, used to be capitol of the Sabaean kingdom... Marib Dam
Located in Egypt; Capital of Egypt.
The city that Muhammad and his followers left in 622 AD because they were being persecuted.
Queen Sheba's temple in Marib... located in Yemen. Dedicated to their god of the moon.
Primary group of people associated with the Bronze Age (3500 - 1200 BC) Fought with Israel
Wondering nomads that invaded the holy land in the 15th century bc. Thought to be early Israelites (Jewish)
Muslims believe that he's God's prophet
God's chosen descendants of Jacob. Follow Jewish religion
Arrived at coast of modern southern Israel, clay coffins.
Immigrants from Crete lived in Palestine
Partially Jewish, worked with Romans and were hated
Fundamentalists a lot of rules thought that the Sadducee's were too willy nilly
Group of people that are priestly, but have a lot of political say, and collected an immense amount of money. Their power came from a new movement in Judaism. didn't believe in the resurrection and in cahoots with the Romans
King of Assyria that expanded the Assyrian empire during the 8th century BC
People in Qumran. Fled Jerusalem because saw the people there as corrupt and unholy. Also believed the messiah was going to come through the desert hence them living in the desert. In the caves of Qumran was where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found written by these people in Hebrew and consisted of the Manuel of Discipline, Letters to Jerusalem, War Scrolls, and Bible Scripture
King of Neo-Babylonia; 586 BC; demanded tribute by all the people on the way to Jerusalem and took over the temple. Caused the end of the Israelites. Tore down the 1st temple
Rebelled military, took over Masada= Jewish revolt.
The George Washington of the Israelites; United the 12 tribes by establishing the city of Jerusalem as the common capital. He built a permanent palace in Jerusalem. He wanted to build a temple for the Lord for a permanent spot for the ark of the covenant but God said he could not because he was a man of war but his son Solomon would build it.
Founded the Israelite temple (The first temple) David's son built the first temple of God where the arc of the covenant was. Known as the wisest in the Ancient near East
Roman commander who lead the attack against the Rebels.
Wrote history of the Jewish people for the Romans. Young man captured by Romans.
1200 BC; people arriving from the Sea onto the coast of Israel. They were originally known as Philistines (uncultured and low class). One of the groups arriving by sea was the Peleset which actually built cities all over the coast.
Founder of Hebrew nation. Founder of Judiasm. Bronze age.
Queen of Sheba
From Africa came to visit Solomon to see how wise he was.
King of Babylon and wrote the earliest legal document the Hammurabi code
Harry St. John Phillby
Laurence of South Arabia, Arabist, explorer, writer, British, intelligence officer, wrote "Sheba's Daughter" (1939), a record of his travels in south Arabia, including observations of remaining iron age cities
Mukkarib (S. Arabia)- Laurence
kingly priests. Started off as priests then became more king like...
Written in Hebrew
Written in Greek
Bronze Age - Cannanites, development of urbanism (southern Levant)
(Philistines) Sea peoples disruption in the eastern Mediterranean.
Iron Age Israelites (Primary Group of time) Kingdom
Babylon sacks Jerusalem, Nebechauzzuer destroying first temple (solomonic Temple). Temple and took many people to Babylon. Marking the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora
Roman Destruction of the (heriodian) second temple - Jerusalem
Muhammad and his followers flee and go to Mecca. (starting date of Muslim Calendar)based on lunar calender.
The switching of the capital to Baghdad Baghdad is founded
the Mongols Conquest landed Ghangis Kahn in Baghdad, the sacking of Baghdad occurred, the end of the world speaking Arabic
End of the Jewish Diaspora Isreal is independent
Iraq became independent
Capitals built on political boundries
Washington D.C. Memphis Jersuleum Baghdad Cairo
arabian peninsula (western side) close to yeman. On the coast.