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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. what is the greenhouse effect?
  2. positive-feedback mechanisms
  3. what isotopes form what part of the foraminifera test composition can be used to tell us about past ice sheet volume changes, and ALSO about past changes in ocean water temperature?
  4. how far back can we trace temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration using ice core data?
  1. a ...
  2. b the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;
  3. c > 400,000 years
  4. d positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
    ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. ice
  2. heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
  3. forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.
  4. in ice, O18 increases relative to O16 during warm intervals. IN forarms, O18 decreases relative to O16 during warm intervals. Ice cores go back more than 400,000 years and record oxygen isotopes (T), atmospheric CO2 and methane in trapped air bubbles. The O isotope record form forarms "mirrors" that from glacial ice.
  5. tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors

5 True/False questions

  1. what are other, natural sources of CO2 and aerosols?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

  2. at what end of the electromagnetic spectrum does one find higher energy wavelengths, and at what end are the lower energy waves?the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation

          

  3. what are some climate proxies?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

  4. at higher energy, do waves have a shorter or longer wavelength?the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation

          

  5. what is albedo?the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent

          

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