5 Written questions
4 Matching questions
- how do we know there has been a sharp rise in atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution?
- how do we know that CO2 is coming primarily from fossils?
- negative-feedback mechanisms
- the climate system
- a ...
- b includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
- c produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
- d 30% higher than highest level over at least the last 650,000 years
5 Multiple choice questions
- forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.
- weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"
- the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation
- hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
(1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
(2) a probable rise in sea level
(3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
(4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
5 True/False questions
how do we know what the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was during past glacial and interglacial cycles? where do these samples come from? → changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution
what is the greenhouse effect? → the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;
positive-feedback mechanisms → positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval? → heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
how far back can we trace temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration using ice core data? → > 400,000 years