5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing?
- how do pollen grains tell us about past climate?
- what are aerosols? how might they influence climate?
- can you figure out why O18 increases (relative to O16) in the tests of foraminifera during cold intervals, but decreases (relative to O16) during cold intervals in water samples from ice cores?
- negative-feedback mechanisms
- a in ice, O18 increases relative to O16 during warm intervals. IN forarms, O18 decreases relative to O16 during warm intervals. Ice cores go back more than 400,000 years and record oxygen isotopes (T), atmospheric CO2 and methane in trapped air bubbles. The O isotope record form forarms "mirrors" that from glacial ice.
- b hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
(1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
(2) a probable rise in sea level
(3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
(4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
- c by analyzing pollen from accurately dated sediments, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of vegetational changes in an area because pollen and spores are parts of life cycles of many plants and are easily identifiable
- d tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors
- e produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
5 Multiple choice questions
- 30% higher than highest level over at least the last 650,000 years
- the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;
- plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots
- the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent
- > 400,000 years
5 True/False questions
stratospheric ozone → ozone near the earth's surface (the troposphere is the lowest ~12 km of the atmosphere) - and affects us adversely when levels get to high. This is because ozone (O3) is a strong oxidizer. Tropospheric ozone is created from an interaction between sunlight and pollutants such as nitrous and sulfur oxides - in our area, most of these pollutants come from combustion in vehicles burning fossil fuels. But, a certain (regulated) amount is emitted from power plants as well. Ozone alerts (or Ozone action days) in Dallas are days when tropospheric ozone concentrations are higher than acceptable for good health. These are nearly always during the summer months.
at what end of the electromagnetic spectrum does one find higher energy wavelengths, and at what end are the lower energy waves? → ...
what causes air masses to move from place to place? → ...
what was the purpose of the Ocean Drilling Program? → (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
(2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
(3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
(4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
(5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data
how do we know what the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was during past glacial and interglacial cycles? where do these samples come from? → changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution