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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing?
  2. what was the purpose of the Ocean Drilling Program?
  3. what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval?
  4. what is the difference between weather and climate?
  5. stratospheric ozone
  1. a hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
    (1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
    (2) a probable rise in sea level
    (3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
    (4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
  2. b weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"
  3. c ...
  4. d heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
  5. e forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. by analyzing pollen from accurately dated sediments, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of vegetational changes in an area because pollen and spores are parts of life cycles of many plants and are easily identifiable
  2. plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots
  3. foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
  4. ...
  5. tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors

5 True/False questions

  1. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!


  2. at what end of the electromagnetic spectrum does one find higher energy wavelengths, and at what end are the lower energy waves?...


  3. how do we know there has been a sharp rise in atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution?30% higher than highest level over at least the last 650,000 years


  4. at higher energy, do waves have a shorter or longer wavelength?the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation


  5. what are some climate proxies?includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe