5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- what causes air masses to move from place to place?
- what is the composition of foraminifera shells (or tests)?
- at higher energy, do waves have a shorter or longer wavelength?
- what is the greenhouse effect?
- what is albedo?
- a the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent
- b the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;
- c ...
- d foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
- e the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation
5 Multiple choice questions
- heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
- includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
- 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
- ozone near the earth's surface (the troposphere is the lowest ~12 km of the atmosphere) - and affects us adversely when levels get to high. This is because ozone (O3) is a strong oxidizer. Tropospheric ozone is created from an interaction between sunlight and pollutants such as nitrous and sulfur oxides - in our area, most of these pollutants come from combustion in vehicles burning fossil fuels. But, a certain (regulated) amount is emitted from power plants as well. Ozone alerts (or Ozone action days) in Dallas are days when tropospheric ozone concentrations are higher than acceptable for good health. These are nearly always during the summer months.
- hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
(1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
(2) a probable rise in sea level
(3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
(4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
5 True/False questions
how far back in time can we trace climate using historical documents? → (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
(2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
(3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
(4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
(5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data
stratospheric ozone → forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.
what has a higher albedo, ice or land? → ice
what isotopes form what part of the foraminifera test composition can be used to tell us about past ice sheet volume changes, and ALSO about past changes in ocean water temperature? → ...
can you figure out why O18 increases (relative to O16) in the tests of foraminifera during cold intervals, but decreases (relative to O16) during cold intervals in water samples from ice cores? → highest its ever been