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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. at higher energy, do waves have a shorter or longer wavelength?
  2. the climate system
  3. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
  4. how are tree rings used to tell us about past climate change?
  5. what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval?
  1. a 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
  2. b every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records
  3. c includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
  4. d the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation
  5. e heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots
  2. in ice, O18 increases relative to O16 during warm intervals. IN forarms, O18 decreases relative to O16 during warm intervals. Ice cores go back more than 400,000 years and record oxygen isotopes (T), atmospheric CO2 and methane in trapped air bubbles. The O isotope record form forarms "mirrors" that from glacial ice.
  3. ...
  4. foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
  5. ice

5 True/False questions

  1. how do we know what the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was during past glacial and interglacial cycles? where do these samples come from?30% higher than highest level over at least the last 650,000 years


  2. trophospheric ozoneforms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.


  3. what are aerosols? how might they influence climate?...


  4. what causes air masses to move from place to place?...


  5. what is the greenhouse effect?the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent