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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
  2. how do we know what the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was during past glacial and interglacial cycles? where do these samples come from?
  3. how are tree rings used to tell us about past climate change?
  4. at what end of the electromagnetic spectrum does one find higher energy wavelengths, and at what end are the lower energy waves?
  1. a ...
  2. b changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution
  3. c every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records
  4. d 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots
  2. ...
  3. hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
    (1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
    (2) a probable rise in sea level
    (3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
    (4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
  4. the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent
  5. the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;

5 True/False questions

  1. stratospheric ozoneforms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.

          

  2. trophospheric ozoneforms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.

          

  3. how do pollen grains tell us about past climate?every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records

          

  4. How do CO2 levels today compare with those of the last 400,000 years?by analyzing pollen from accurately dated sediments, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of vegetational changes in an area because pollen and spores are parts of life cycles of many plants and are easily identifiable

          

  5. what are some climate proxies?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data