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Each of the following is a function of the nervous system except
directing activities that continue for extended periods, such as growth and pregnancy
The part of the peripheral nervous that brings information to the central nervous system is
Functions of astrocytes include all of the following except
functioning in action potential transmission
The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by
At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its ion exchange pump transports
3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions
Sensory and motor innervation of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
- it can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region
- it is commonly used as method of pain control during labor and delivery
- if affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection
- it provides mainly sensory anesthesia
During embryonic development, which of the following brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate & digestive activities are located in the
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the
Motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with eating are located in the
The ___________ appear(s) to be important in learning and the storage of long-term memories
Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor responses are called __________ areas.
- are subject ot adjustments and modification over time
- involve both conscious and unconscious information processing
- involve complex interactions between areas of the cortex and other areas of the brain
The brain alters spinal reflexes by
- "sending" the reflexes to higher centers in the brain
- reinforcing or facilitating reflexes
- stimulating "inhibiting neurons" and suppressing postsynaptic neurons
Vestibulospinal, tectospinal and reticulospinal are three ___________
motor pathways of the spinal cord
Receptor specificity can be the result of all of the following except
tissue location of the receptor cell
Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following , except that
receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner
Harry has a biking accident and injures his back. He is examined by a doctor who noticed that Harry cannot feel pin pricks in his right foot but can feel the sensation in his left foot as well as his right and lift and thorax. There appear to be no problems with the motor activity in any of his appendages. The physician tells Harry that he thinks a portion of the spinal cord may be compressed and is causing these symptoms. Where the problem is probably located?
The right lateral spinothalamic tract at the L2 level
Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the
ability to position the eyes, head and neck in response to bright lights
Sensations of burning or aching pain
cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus
The ability to localize a specific stimulus depends on the organized distribution of sensory information to the
primary sensory cortex
Related to the medial and lateral pathways: The ________ pathway controls ________ movements of ______ limb muscles.
medial; gross; proximal OR lateral; precise, distal
The cerebellum monitors
- sensations from the inner ear as movements are under way
- proprioceptive sensations
- visual information from the eyes
Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the
- corticospinal pathway
- lateral pathway
- medial pathway
Proprioceptors are to __________ as exteroreceptors are to ____________
skeletal muscles; external environment
Visceral sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers primarily in the
brain stem and diencephalon
The cerebellum adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity in response to all of the following, except
Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle or eating
require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
Processing centers of the extrapyramidal system include all of the following, except
Spinal tracts of the extrapyrmidal system include all of the following, except _______ tracts
Axons that decussate in the region of the pyramids of the medulla form the _______ tracts
The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of reflex activity and autonomic function is the ___________ tract
The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of eye, head, neck, and arm position in response to visual and auditory stimuli is the ______ tract
The spinal tract that regulates voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle on the same side of the body is the _______ tract
We can distinguish between sensations that originate in different areas of the body because
sensory neurons from each body region synapse in specific brain regions
The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the
The spinal tract that relay information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
The spinal tract that carries sensory information concerning fine touch and pressure is the
Fine touch and pressure receptors provide detailed information about all of the following, except the
time of the stimulus
Second-order neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in
- the posterior gray horns of the spin cord
- the brain
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord
Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a(n)
Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
decreased heart rate
A patient is about to undergo major surgery for a tumor in the chest. Two hours before the surgery the patient experiences "jitters," an elevated heart and blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, cold sweats and an urge to urinate. These symptoms are the results of
Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with his problem? A drug that
blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
Mary accidentally ingests a toxin that binds to muscarinic receptors. What symptoms would you expect to observe?
Hypersecretion of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in
flaccidity of skeletal muscles
What symptoms would you expect to observe in a person who is taking a drug that blocks secretion of norepinephrine in the CNS?
Bill suffers a blow tot he neck that causes edema that compresses the ventral roots of spinal nerves C2 to C4 on the right side of his body. What symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of the injury?
difficulty in stabilizing the right shoulder joint
A neuron with nicotenic receptors is stimulated by an acetylcholine agonist (molecule that acts the same as acetylcholine). This will cause
an increase in intracellular sodium ion
Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first is located in the cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. The effector is probably
a sweat gland
Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of tme that the same substance when released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why?
There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and few enzymes in peripheral tissues
Drugs that have effects similar to those of norephinephrine and epinephrine are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following symptoms would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken an excess of sympathomimetic drugs?
decreased blood pressure
Damage to the ventral root of the first five thoracic spinal nerve on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
dilate the right pupil
Autonomic tone in autonomic motor neurons exist because ANS neurons
from both divisions commonly innervate the same organ
The chief difference between plasma and interstitial fluid involves the
concentration of dissolved oxygen and proteins
The common pathway of coagulation begins with the
activating of a clotting factor that converts prothrombin to thrombin
Which of the following drives a continuous exchange of fluids between the tissues and the blood
osmosis and diffusion
Your patient is on coumadin therapy (an anticoagulant) for a blood clot in the leg. Which type of plasma protein would you suspect is low?
Eleen is a a strict vegetarian who's experiencing erythropenia, a deficiency in the number of red blood cells. This condition is most likely the result of which of the following?
lack of intrinsic factor
The disease sickle cell anemia is a good example of what can happen when
the amino acid sequence of normal globin is altered
When a person who lives in a city at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains , you would expect to observe an increase in
their red blood cell count
The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except
during periods of fasting
People who suffer from hemophilia A fail to produce a functional factor VIII; as a result
they do not have a functional intrinsic pathway
A digestive disorder that impairs a person's ability to digest and absorb fats would interfere with
the common pathway of clotting
The plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to
the calcium channels remaining open longer that the sodium channels
In cardiac muscle
at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell
Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells are different in a few ways. Which of the following is not true?
Skeletal muscle cells have only one nucleus
The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs are developing before birth is the
Blood moves forward through beins by all of the following, except
because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein
Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure except
increased levels of aldosterone
Elderly individuals are more pprone than are younger individuals to have all of the following except
The secretion of ADH and aldosterone is typical of the body's long-term compensation following
a serious hemorrhage
Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except
increased levels of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor)
Activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by:
blood contact with injured vascular endothelium
Deficient production of blotting factors would occur if
an individual suffered from cirrhosis of the liver
All of the following are true regarding primary hemostatsis except
fibrin clots retract and solidify
Clotting factors are essential for successful hemostasis. Which of the following statements is true concerning the clotting factors?
Most clotting factors circulate in inactive form
Given an end-diastolic volume of 150 mL, an end systolic volume of 50 mL, and a heart rate of 60 b[m, the cardiac output is:
The statement "strength of contraction increases intrinsically due to increased stretching of the heart wall" is best attributed to"
Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
A rise in blood pressure causes the heart rate to ______ because of the activation of the _______ nervous system
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