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Each of the following is a function of the nervous system except

directing activities that continue for extended periods, such as growth and pregnancy

Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the ____________ nervous system


The part of the peripheral nervous that brings information to the central nervous system is


Functions of astrocytes include all of the following except

functioning in action potential transmission

The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by


The type of glial cells that's found lining the ventricles and spinal canal are the

ependymal cells

At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its ion exchange pump transports

3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions

The sodium-potassium exchange pump

requires ATP to function


are found only in the central nervous system

All of the following are functions of cerebral spinal fluid, except that it

transports oxygen

The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

axons of sensory neurons

The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

axons of motor neurons

Spinal nerves are __________ nerves


Which of the following pairs is not properly matched?

lumber spinal nerves: 4

Sensory and motor innervation of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the

ventral ramus

Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?

- it can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region
- it is commonly used as method of pain control during labor and delivery
- if affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection
- it provides mainly sensory anesthesia

The middle layer of the spinal nerve is termed the


The horns of the spinal cord contain

nerve cell bodies

During embryonic development, which of the following brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?


Visual and auditory information are processed by the


Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate & digestive activities are located in the

medulla oblongata

Which of the following represents a link between the nervous and endocrine systems?


The pons contains

tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the


Auditory information from the medulla is received by the

inferior colliculi

Motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with eating are located in the

mamillary bodies

Stimulation of the reticular formation results in

increased consciousness

The ___________ appear(s) to be important in learning and the storage of long-term memories


Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor responses are called __________ areas.


The highest levels of information processing occur in the


Higher-order functions

- are subject ot adjustments and modification over time
- involve both conscious and unconscious information processing
- involve complex interactions between areas of the cortex and other areas of the brain

The cerebral nuclei

provide the general pattern and rhythm for movements such as walking

The respiratory rhythmicity center is found in

the medulla oblongata

Two terms that are used in reference to gray matter are _______ and ___________

nuclei, horns

Two terms that are used in reference to white matter are _________ and ___________

tracts, columns

The brain alters spinal reflexes by

- "sending" the reflexes to higher centers in the brain
- reinforcing or facilitating reflexes
- stimulating "inhibiting neurons" and suppressing postsynaptic neurons

A muscle spindle is

innervated by both sensory and motor neurons

Vestibulospinal, tectospinal and reticulospinal are three ___________

motor pathways of the spinal cord

Receptor specificity can be the result of all of the following except

tissue location of the receptor cell

Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following , except that

receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner

Harry has a biking accident and injures his back. He is examined by a doctor who noticed that Harry cannot feel pin pricks in his right foot but can feel the sensation in his left foot as well as his right and lift and thorax. There appear to be no problems with the motor activity in any of his appendages. The physician tells Harry that he thinks a portion of the spinal cord may be compressed and is causing these symptoms. Where the problem is probably located?

The right lateral spinothalamic tract at the L2 level

Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the

ability to position the eyes, head and neck in response to bright lights

Sensations of burning or aching pain

cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus

The ability to localize a specific stimulus depends on the organized distribution of sensory information to the

primary sensory cortex

Related to the medial and lateral pathways: The ________ pathway controls ________ movements of ______ limb muscles.

medial; gross; proximal OR lateral; precise, distal

The cerebellum monitors

- sensations from the inner ear as movements are under way
- proprioceptive sensations
- visual information from the eyes

Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the

- corticospinal pathway
- lateral pathway
- medial pathway

_________ are receptors in the lung that monitor the degree of lung expansion


Peripheral adaption _____ the amount of information hat reaches the CNS


Proprioceptors are to __________ as exteroreceptors are to ____________

skeletal muscles; external environment

Somatic sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers in the


Visceral sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers primarily in the

brain stem and diencephalon

An autonomic motor neuron whose cell body lies in the CNS is called _______ neuron

a preganglionic

The cerebellum adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity in response to all of the following, except

touch sensations

Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle or eating

require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain

The cerebral nuclei

provide a background pattern and rhythm for movement

Processing centers of the extrapyramidal system include all of the following, except

mamillary bodies

Spinal tracts of the extrapyrmidal system include all of the following, except _______ tracts


Axons that decussate in the region of the pyramids of the medulla form the _______ tracts

lateral corticospinal

Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the

pyramidal system

The pyramidal system provides

voluntary control over skeletal muscles

The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of reflex activity and autonomic function is the ___________ tract


The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of eye, head, neck, and arm position in response to visual and auditory stimuli is the ______ tract


The spinal tract that regulates voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle on the same side of the body is the _______ tract

anterior corticospinal

We can distinguish between sensations that originate in different areas of the body because

sensory neurons from each body region synapse in specific brain regions

The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the

lateral spinothalamic

The spinal tract that relay information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the

anterior spinothalamic

The spinal tract that carries sensory information concerning fine touch and pressure is the

fasciculus gracilis

Fine touch and pressure receptors provide detailed information about all of the following, except the

time of the stimulus

In the autonomic nervous system

the lower motor neurons directly innervate effector organs

Second-order neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in

- the posterior gray horns of the spin cord
- the brain

Postganglionic axons of autonomic neurons are usually


Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the

lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a(n)

chain ganglion

Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except

decreased heart rate

Splanchnic nerves

carry fibers that synapse in collateral ganglia

Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the

vagus nerve

Postganglionic neurons in the adrenal gland

release epinephrine into blood capillaries

Muscarinic receptors

are activated by acetylcholine

Increased parasympathetic stimulation

increases gastric motility

A patient is about to undergo major surgery for a tumor in the chest. Two hours before the surgery the patient experiences "jitters," an elevated heart and blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, cold sweats and an urge to urinate. These symptoms are the results of

sympathetic activation

Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with his problem? A drug that

blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

Mary accidentally ingests a toxin that binds to muscarinic receptors. What symptoms would you expect to observe?


Hallucinogenic drugs, like LSD, function by

stimulating serotonin receptors

The neurotransmitter that may be linked to schizophrenia is


Hypersecretion of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in

flaccidity of skeletal muscles

What symptoms would you expect to observe in a person who is taking a drug that blocks secretion of norepinephrine in the CNS?


Parasympathetic blocking agents would be useful in treating


Bill suffers a blow tot he neck that causes edema that compresses the ventral roots of spinal nerves C2 to C4 on the right side of his body. What symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of the injury?

difficulty in stabilizing the right shoulder joint

Drugs known as beta-blockers would be useful for treating

high blood pressure

Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors causing constriction of peripheral vessels are


A neuron with nicotenic receptors is stimulated by an acetylcholine agonist (molecule that acts the same as acetylcholine). This will cause

an increase in intracellular sodium ion

Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first is located in the cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. The effector is probably

a sweat gland

Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of tme that the same substance when released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why?

There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and few enzymes in peripheral tissues

Drugs that have effects similar to those of norephinephrine and epinephrine are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following symptoms would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken an excess of sympathomimetic drugs?

decreased blood pressure

Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the

digestive tract

Damage to the ventral root of the first five thoracic spinal nerve on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to

dilate the right pupil

Autonomic tone in autonomic motor neurons exist because ANS neurons

from both divisions commonly innervate the same organ

The chief difference between plasma and interstitial fluid involves the

concentration of dissolved oxygen and proteins

Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone


A red blood cell that contains normal amounts of hemoglobin would be called


In adults, erythropoiesis primarily takes place in

myeloid tissue

Erythrocytes are formed from stem cells called

myeloid cells

Eryopoiesis increases when

oxygen levels in the blood increase

Platelets function in all of the following, except

dissolving a formed clot

The main event of the platelet phase is

formation of a platelet plug

The common pathway of coagulation begins with the

activating of a clotting factor that converts prothrombin to thrombin

Tissue thromboplasting is formed in the _________ pathway.


Which of the following drives a continuous exchange of fluids between the tissues and the blood

osmosis and diffusion

Your patient is on coumadin therapy (an anticoagulant) for a blood clot in the leg. Which type of plasma protein would you suspect is low?


Eleen is a a strict vegetarian who's experiencing erythropenia, a deficiency in the number of red blood cells. This condition is most likely the result of which of the following?

lack of intrinsic factor

The disease sickle cell anemia is a good example of what can happen when

the amino acid sequence of normal globin is altered

When a person who lives in a city at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains , you would expect to observe an increase in

their red blood cell count

The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except

during periods of fasting

People who suffer from hemophilia A fail to produce a functional factor VIII; as a result

they do not have a functional intrinsic pathway

A digestive disorder that impairs a person's ability to digest and absorb fats would interfere with

the common pathway of clotting

The myocardium is primarily composed of _________ tissue

cardiac muscle

The plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to

the calcium channels remaining open longer that the sodium channels

In cardiac muscle

at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell

Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells are different in a few ways. Which of the following is not true?

Skeletal muscle cells have only one nucleus

Cardiac muscle cells are


The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs are developing before birth is the

foramen ovale

Drugs known as calcium channel blockers can be used to

decrease the force of cardiac contraction

If the connections between the vagus nerve and the heart are severed, the

none of the above

Which of the following is greater?

heart rate when norepinephrine is released at the SA node

Compared to arteries, veins

have thinner walls

Blood flow through a capillary is regulated by the

precapillary sphincter

Blood moves forward through beins by all of the following, except

because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the

resistance increases

Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the

level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases

Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased

parasympathetic innervation

The blood osmotic pressure is most affected by changes in the

concentration of plasma proteins

Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure except

increased levels of aldosterone

Elderly individuals are more pprone than are younger individuals to have all of the following except

air embolisms

Arterial pressure is equal to

blood pressure

Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased

fluid loss through the kidneys

The secretion of ADH and aldosterone is typical of the body's long-term compensation following

a serious hemorrhage

Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except

increased levels of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor)

Activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by:

blood contact with injured vascular endothelium

Fibrinolysis is characterized by

conversion of plasminogen to plasmin

Deficient production of blotting factors would occur if

an individual suffered from cirrhosis of the liver

All of the following are true regarding primary hemostatsis except

fibrin clots retract and solidify

Clotting factors are essential for successful hemostasis. Which of the following statements is true concerning the clotting factors?

Most clotting factors circulate in inactive form

Blood pressure is highest in the


A common cause of edema (swelling) is

decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure

Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system caues constriction of


During which period are Ca2+ slow channels open in cardiac cells' plasma membranes?


Given an end-diastolic volume of 150 mL, an end systolic volume of 50 mL, and a heart rate of 60 b[m, the cardiac output is:

6 Liters/min

The statement "strength of contraction increases intrinsically due to increased stretching of the heart wall" is best attributed to"

Frank-Starling Law of the Heart

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