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Human Anatomy Exam Qs

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Each of the following is a function of the nervous system except
directing activities that continue for extended periods, such as growth and pregnancy
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the ____________ nervous system
Somatic
The part of the peripheral nervous that brings information to the central nervous system is
Afferent
Functions of astrocytes include all of the following except
functioning in action potential transmission
The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by
oligodendrocytes
The type of glial cells that's found lining the ventricles and spinal canal are the
ependymal cells
At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its ion exchange pump transports
3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions
The sodium-potassium exchange pump
requires ATP to function
Interneurons
are found only in the central nervous system
All of the following are functions of cerebral spinal fluid, except that it
transports oxygen
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of sensory neurons
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of motor neurons
Spinal nerves are __________ nerves
mixed
Which of the following pairs is not properly matched?
lumber spinal nerves: 4
Sensory and motor innervation of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the
ventral ramus
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
- it can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region
- it is commonly used as method of pain control during labor and delivery
- if affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection
- it provides mainly sensory anesthesia
The middle layer of the spinal nerve is termed the
perineurium
The horns of the spinal cord contain
nerve cell bodies
During embryonic development, which of the following brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
telencephalon
Visual and auditory information are processed by the
diencephalon
Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate & digestive activities are located in the
medulla oblongata
Which of the following represents a link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
hypothalamus
The pons contains
tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the
cerebellum
Auditory information from the medulla is received by the
inferior colliculi
Motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with eating are located in the
mamillary bodies
Stimulation of the reticular formation results in
increased consciousness
The ___________ appear(s) to be important in learning and the storage of long-term memories
hippocampus
Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor responses are called __________ areas.
association
The highest levels of information processing occur in the
cerebrum
Higher-order functions
- are subject ot adjustments and modification over time
- involve both conscious and unconscious information processing
- involve complex interactions between areas of the cortex and other areas of the brain
The cerebral nuclei
provide the general pattern and rhythm for movements such as walking
The respiratory rhythmicity center is found in
the medulla oblongata
Two terms that are used in reference to gray matter are _______ and ___________
nuclei, horns
Two terms that are used in reference to white matter are _________ and ___________
tracts, columns
The brain alters spinal reflexes by
- "sending" the reflexes to higher centers in the brain
- reinforcing or facilitating reflexes
- stimulating "inhibiting neurons" and suppressing postsynaptic neurons
A muscle spindle is
innervated by both sensory and motor neurons
Vestibulospinal, tectospinal and reticulospinal are three ___________
motor pathways of the spinal cord
Receptor specificity can be the result of all of the following except
tissue location of the receptor cell
Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following , except that
receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner
Harry has a biking accident and injures his back. He is examined by a doctor who noticed that Harry cannot feel pin pricks in his right foot but can feel the sensation in his left foot as well as his right and lift and thorax. There appear to be no problems with the motor activity in any of his appendages. The physician tells Harry that he thinks a portion of the spinal cord may be compressed and is causing these symptoms. Where the problem is probably located?
The right lateral spinothalamic tract at the L2 level
Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the
ability to position the eyes, head and neck in response to bright lights
Sensations of burning or aching pain
cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus
The ability to localize a specific stimulus depends on the organized distribution of sensory information to the
primary sensory cortex
Related to the medial and lateral pathways: The ________ pathway controls ________ movements of ______ limb muscles.
medial; gross; proximal OR lateral; precise, distal
The cerebellum monitors
- sensations from the inner ear as movements are under way
- proprioceptive sensations
- visual information from the eyes
Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the
- corticospinal pathway
- lateral pathway
- medial pathway
_________ are receptors in the lung that monitor the degree of lung expansion
Baroreceptors
Peripheral adaption _____ the amount of information hat reaches the CNS
decreases
Proprioceptors are to __________ as exteroreceptors are to ____________
skeletal muscles; external environment
Somatic sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers in the
brain
Visceral sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers primarily in the
brain stem and diencephalon
An autonomic motor neuron whose cell body lies in the CNS is called _______ neuron
a preganglionic
The cerebellum adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity in response to all of the following, except
touch sensations
Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle or eating
require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
The cerebral nuclei
provide a background pattern and rhythm for movement
Processing centers of the extrapyramidal system include all of the following, except
mamillary bodies
Spinal tracts of the extrapyrmidal system include all of the following, except _______ tracts
spinothalamic
Axons that decussate in the region of the pyramids of the medulla form the _______ tracts
lateral corticospinal
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the
pyramidal system
The pyramidal system provides
voluntary control over skeletal muscles
The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of reflex activity and autonomic function is the ___________ tract
reticulospinal
The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of eye, head, neck, and arm position in response to visual and auditory stimuli is the ______ tract
tectospinal
The spinal tract that regulates voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle on the same side of the body is the _______ tract
anterior corticospinal
We can distinguish between sensations that originate in different areas of the body because
sensory neurons from each body region synapse in specific brain regions
The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the
lateral spinothalamic
The spinal tract that relay information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
anterior spinothalamic
The spinal tract that carries sensory information concerning fine touch and pressure is the
fasciculus gracilis
Fine touch and pressure receptors provide detailed information about all of the following, except the
time of the stimulus
In the autonomic nervous system
the lower motor neurons directly innervate effector organs
Second-order neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in
- the posterior gray horns of the spin cord
- the brain
Postganglionic axons of autonomic neurons are usually
unmyelinated
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord
Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a(n)
chain ganglion
Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
decreased heart rate
Splanchnic nerves
carry fibers that synapse in collateral ganglia
Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
vagus nerve
Postganglionic neurons in the adrenal gland
release epinephrine into blood capillaries
Muscarinic receptors
are activated by acetylcholine
Increased parasympathetic stimulation
increases gastric motility
A patient is about to undergo major surgery for a tumor in the chest. Two hours before the surgery the patient experiences "jitters," an elevated heart and blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, cold sweats and an urge to urinate. These symptoms are the results of
sympathetic activation
Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with his problem? A drug that
blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
Mary accidentally ingests a toxin that binds to muscarinic receptors. What symptoms would you expect to observe?
diarrhea
Hallucinogenic drugs, like LSD, function by
stimulating serotonin receptors
The neurotransmitter that may be linked to schizophrenia is
dopamine
Hypersecretion of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in
flaccidity of skeletal muscles
What symptoms would you expect to observe in a person who is taking a drug that blocks secretion of norepinephrine in the CNS?
depression
Parasympathetic blocking agents would be useful in treating
diarrhea
Bill suffers a blow tot he neck that causes edema that compresses the ventral roots of spinal nerves C2 to C4 on the right side of his body. What symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of the injury?
difficulty in stabilizing the right shoulder joint
Drugs known as beta-blockers would be useful for treating
high blood pressure
Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors causing constriction of peripheral vessels are
sympathomimetic
A neuron with nicotenic receptors is stimulated by an acetylcholine agonist (molecule that acts the same as acetylcholine). This will cause
an increase in intracellular sodium ion
Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first is located in the cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. The effector is probably
a sweat gland
Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of tme that the same substance when released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why?
There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and few enzymes in peripheral tissues
Drugs that have effects similar to those of norephinephrine and epinephrine are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following symptoms would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken an excess of sympathomimetic drugs?
decreased blood pressure
Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the
digestive tract
Damage to the ventral root of the first five thoracic spinal nerve on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
dilate the right pupil
Autonomic tone in autonomic motor neurons exist because ANS neurons
from both divisions commonly innervate the same organ
The chief difference between plasma and interstitial fluid involves the
concentration of dissolved oxygen and proteins
Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone
erythropoietin
A red blood cell that contains normal amounts of hemoglobin would be called
normochromic
In adults, erythropoiesis primarily takes place in
myeloid tissue
Erythrocytes are formed from stem cells called
myeloid cells
Eryopoiesis increases when
oxygen levels in the blood increase
Platelets function in all of the following, except
dissolving a formed clot
The main event of the platelet phase is
formation of a platelet plug
The common pathway of coagulation begins with the
activating of a clotting factor that converts prothrombin to thrombin
Tissue thromboplasting is formed in the _________ pathway.
extrinsic
Which of the following drives a continuous exchange of fluids between the tissues and the blood
osmosis and diffusion
Your patient is on coumadin therapy (an anticoagulant) for a blood clot in the leg. Which type of plasma protein would you suspect is low?
fibrinogen
Eleen is a a strict vegetarian who's experiencing erythropenia, a deficiency in the number of red blood cells. This condition is most likely the result of which of the following?
lack of intrinsic factor
The disease sickle cell anemia is a good example of what can happen when
the amino acid sequence of normal globin is altered
When a person who lives in a city at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains , you would expect to observe an increase in
their red blood cell count
The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except
during periods of fasting
People who suffer from hemophilia A fail to produce a functional factor VIII; as a result
they do not have a functional intrinsic pathway
A digestive disorder that impairs a person's ability to digest and absorb fats would interfere with
the common pathway of clotting
The myocardium is primarily composed of _________ tissue
cardiac muscle
The plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to
the calcium channels remaining open longer that the sodium channels
In cardiac muscle
at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell
Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells are different in a few ways. Which of the following is not true?
Skeletal muscle cells have only one nucleus
Cardiac muscle cells are
aerobic
The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs are developing before birth is the
foramen ovale
Drugs known as calcium channel blockers can be used to
decrease the force of cardiac contraction
If the connections between the vagus nerve and the heart are severed, the
none of the above
Which of the following is greater?
heart rate when norepinephrine is released at the SA node
Compared to arteries, veins
have thinner walls
Blood flow through a capillary is regulated by the
precapillary sphincter
Blood moves forward through beins by all of the following, except
because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein
As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the
resistance increases
Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the
level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases
Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased
parasympathetic innervation
The blood osmotic pressure is most affected by changes in the
concentration of plasma proteins
Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure except
increased levels of aldosterone
Elderly individuals are more pprone than are younger individuals to have all of the following except
air embolisms
Arterial pressure is equal to
blood pressure
Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased
fluid loss through the kidneys
The secretion of ADH and aldosterone is typical of the body's long-term compensation following
a serious hemorrhage
Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except
increased levels of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor)
Activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by:
blood contact with injured vascular endothelium
Fibrinolysis is characterized by
conversion of plasminogen to plasmin
Deficient production of blotting factors would occur if
an individual suffered from cirrhosis of the liver
All of the following are true regarding primary hemostatsis except
fibrin clots retract and solidify
Clotting factors are essential for successful hemostasis. Which of the following statements is true concerning the clotting factors?
Most clotting factors circulate in inactive form
Blood pressure is highest in the
aorta
A common cause of edema (swelling) is
decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system caues constriction of
arterioles
During which period are Ca2+ slow channels open in cardiac cells' plasma membranes?
plateau
Given an end-diastolic volume of 150 mL, an end systolic volume of 50 mL, and a heart rate of 60 b[m, the cardiac output is:
6 Liters/min
The statement "strength of contraction increases intrinsically due to increased stretching of the heart wall" is best attributed to"
Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
A rise in blood pressure causes the heart rate to ______ because of the activation of the _______ nervous system
decrease, parasympathetic
Arteries Q: Two paired arteries serving the brain
External & Internal carotid
Arteries Q: supplies the diaphragm
Phrenic
Arteries Q: splits to form the radial and ulnar arteries
Brachail
Arteries Q: external iliac become this artery on entering the thigh
Femoral
Arteries Q: Terminal branches of the dorsal, or descending, aorta
Common iliac
Arteries Q: Artery generally used to feel the pulse at the wrist
Radial
Veins: drains the dural sinuses of the brain
Internal jugular
Veins: join to become the superior vena cava
Brachiocephalic
Veins: carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive organs
Hepatic Portal
Veins: drains the ovaries or testes
Gonadal
Veins: longest superficial vein of the body
Great Saphenous
Veins: formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins
Common iliac
Veins: deep vein of the thigh
Deep femoral