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Define Neoplasm

a new growth that can be frightening, perplexing and life-threatening. Neoplasm is a new formation or new growth that serves no useful purpose. The term tumor, a swelling or an enlargement, is used interchangeably with neoplasm

benign tumors

one that remains localized as a discrete mass

malignant tumor

is invasive, grows rather rapidly, is sometimes anaplastic (has lost is cell definition and function), and can metastasize through the blood or lymph. Malignant tumors are known as cancer.

possible causes of cancer?

Carcinogens Age Genetics Body weight and diet
enviroment viruses

3 classifications of cancer

Cancers of the Blood and Lymph

How may cancer be diagnosed:

Blood Chemisty analysis
Nuclear medicine scans
Isotope scanning

Cancer grading

helps in the diagnosis and in treatment planning, provides a possible prognosis, and allows for comparison of treatment results

Grade I

Tumor cells are well differentiated, closely resembling normal parent tissue.

Grade II

Tumor cells are intermediate in appearance, moderately or poorly differentiated.

Grade III

Tumor cells are very abnormal and poorly differentiated

Grade IV

Tumor cells are so anaplastic that recognition of the tumor's tissue origin is difficult

staging neoplasms

involves estimating the extent to which a tumor has spread.

Surgery as a form of cancer treatment

Surgery: Specific or curative, palliative, preventive


chemical agents are used to stop the growth of cancer cells.

Radiation Therapy - external mode

an x-ray machine or radioactive form of an element called a radioisotope may be used

Radiation Therapy - internal mode

an x-ray machine or radioactive form of an element called a radioisotope may be used


stimulates or restores and strengthens the body's own immune system

Hormonal therapy

adds, blocks or removes hormones

Stem Cell and Bone Marrow transplant

proved effective in restoring hematologic

What measures are used to reduce cancer risk

1. Do not use tobacco
2. Practice sun safety
3. Eat a healthy diet
4. Exercise and maintain a healthy weight
5. Get vaccinated
6. Avoid risky practices
7. Practice self-examination

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