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20 terms

Human Diseases Midterm Review Chp 5

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Define Neoplasm
a new growth that can be frightening, perplexing and life-threatening. Neoplasm is a new formation or new growth that serves no useful purpose. The term tumor, a swelling or an enlargement, is used interchangeably with neoplasm
benign tumors
one that remains localized as a discrete mass
malignant tumor
is invasive, grows rather rapidly, is sometimes anaplastic (has lost is cell definition and function), and can metastasize through the blood or lymph. Malignant tumors are known as cancer.
possible causes of cancer?
Carcinogens Age Genetics Body weight and diet
enviroment viruses
3 classifications of cancer
Carcinomas
Sarcomas
Cancers of the Blood and Lymph
How may cancer be diagnosed:
Blood Chemisty analysis
Ultrasonography
Radiography
Endoscopy
Nuclear medicine scans
Isotope scanning
CT
MRI
Biopsy
Cancer grading
helps in the diagnosis and in treatment planning, provides a possible prognosis, and allows for comparison of treatment results
Grade I
Tumor cells are well differentiated, closely resembling normal parent tissue.
Grade II
Tumor cells are intermediate in appearance, moderately or poorly differentiated.
Grade III
Tumor cells are very abnormal and poorly differentiated
Grade IV
Tumor cells are so anaplastic that recognition of the tumor's tissue origin is difficult
staging neoplasms
involves estimating the extent to which a tumor has spread.
Surgery as a form of cancer treatment
Surgery: Specific or curative, palliative, preventive
Chemotherapy
chemical agents are used to stop the growth of cancer cells.
Radiation Therapy - external mode
an x-ray machine or radioactive form of an element called a radioisotope may be used
Radiation Therapy - internal mode
an x-ray machine or radioactive form of an element called a radioisotope may be used
Immunotheraphy
stimulates or restores and strengthens the body's own immune system
Hormonal therapy
adds, blocks or removes hormones
Stem Cell and Bone Marrow transplant
proved effective in restoring hematologic
What measures are used to reduce cancer risk
1. Do not use tobacco
2. Practice sun safety
3. Eat a healthy diet
4. Exercise and maintain a healthy weight
5. Get vaccinated
6. Avoid risky practices
7. Practice self-examination