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Circulatory System

transports materials to and from cells; transports oxygen, nutrients and wastes; fights infection; helps regulate body temperature

Endocrine System

controls growth and development and energy processes; controls many body processes by means of chemicals; helps maintain homeostasis

Muscular System

with skeletal systme enables movement of the body and internal organs; helps circulate blood and move food through the digestive system

Digestive System

breaks down food and absorbs nutrients; removes wastes

Nervous System

Controls body's responses to changes in inside and outside environments; Detects information from the environment and controls body functions

Skeletal System

Supports body, protects internal organs, allows movement, stores minerals, produces blood cells

Respiratory System

brings in oxygen needed by cells; and removes carbon dioxide from body

Excretory System

Removes wastes products from the body

How many organ systems are there in the body

10 organ systems

List the 10 organ systems

1) Circulatory 2) Digestive 3)Endocrine 4) Excretory 5)Muscular 6) Nervous 7) Respiratory 8) Skeletal 9) Integumentary System 10) Reproductive System

What are the four levels of organization in the human body?

1) cells 2) tissues 3) organs 4) organ systems

What is the largest level or organization in the human body?

organ system

What is the smallest unit of organization in the human body?



the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing

cell membrane

forms the outside boundary of the cell


the control center located inside the cell membrane and directs the cell's activities and contains information that determines the cell's characteristics.


a clear, jelly-like substance found between the cell membrane and the nucleus in which many important cell structures are found

What is the function of the nucleus?

to act as a control center - directing the cell's activities


group of similar cells that form the same function

What are the 4 basic types of tissue?

1) muscle tissue 2) nerve tissue 3) connective tissue 4) epithelial tissue

muscle tissue

they contract and shorten thus making parts of the body move

nerve tissue

carry messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body.

What type of tissue is the brain made of?

nerve tissue

connective tissue

it provides support for your body and connects all its parts

What is one type of connective tissue?


Epithelial tissue

covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out.

What is the name of the outermost layer of epithelial tissue?


What are some types of connective tissue?

fat, cartilage, bones, and tendons

What types of things are made of nerve tissue?

The brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

What do skin cells help do?

They form a protective barrier against the environment outside the body.


structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue and perform a specific job.

Which is more complex - the job of an organ or a tissue?

the organ

Which organ contains all four types of tissue (muscle, nerve, connective, and epithelial)?

the heart

organ system

a group of organs that work together to perform a major function.

What works together and depend upon one another?

organ systems


the body's tendency to maintain internal balance. It is the process by which an ORGANISM'S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS KEPT STABLE IN SPITE OF CHANGES IN THE OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT

What are some ways your body maintains homeostasis?

When your body is hungry or thirsty, the brain sends signals telling you to eat or drink. Another way the body provides this is through perspiration. The sweat is the body's way of maintaining a constant temperature on a hot day.


The reaction of your body and mind to threatening, challenging, or disturbing events.

What is one way to upset homeostasis?


What are some physical responses to stress?

1) hearing ability increases 2) sweating increases 3) muscles become tense 4) pupils of eyes widen 5) heart rate increases 6) digestive system slows 7) more blood goes to the brain


a chemical the body releases during the alarm stage

What is the purpose of adrenaline in the body?

It gives you a burst of energy and causes many other changes which prepares the body to take quick action.

Fight or flight

a reaction caused by adrenaline that prepares one to either fight the stressor or take flight and escape.

What are three helpful ways of dealing with stress?

1) physical activity 2) talk about the situation 3) accept and deal with the problem.

What is the order of body organization from smallest to largest level of organization?

cell, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

Integumentary System

the organ system that forms a protective covering on the outside of the body, the skin and its accessory structures such as hair and nails

Reproductive System

organs and tissues involved in the production and maturation of gametes and in their union and subsequent development as offspring; produces and delivers sex cells; in females, nurtures and protects developing embryo

Structures of Skeletal System

bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons

Structures of Integumentary System

skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands

Structures of Muscular System

skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle

Structures of Circulatory System

heart & blood vessels

Structures of Respiratory System

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Structures of Digestive System

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, pancreas, large intestine, rectum

Structures of Excretory System

skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, urinary, bladder, urethra

Structures of Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord, nerves

Structures of Endocrine System

glands - such as thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, ovaries, testes, and others

Structures of Reproductive System

in males - testes, ducts, urethra, penis
in females - ovaries, ducts, uterus, vagina


the inner framework made up of all the bones of the body

How does the body move?

muscles and bones work together making it possible and nervous sytem tells the muscles when to act


A place in the body where two bones come together

Which systems move materials in your body?

circulatory, respiratory, digestive and excretory

What are the body systems involved in getting oxygen to your cells?

respiratory, circulatory, muscular and nervous

How is absorption an important function of the digestive system?

helps move nutrients through the blood to cells


a substance in food that provides energy or helps form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth; body needs these to carry out processes such as contracting muscles


process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the bloodstream


organs that secrete chemical signals (hormones) into the bloodstream

Which systems control body functions?

nervous and endocrine systems


any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react


what the body does in reaction to a stimulus


chemical signals or messengers released by the endocrine glands; transported through body by the circulatory system

How does your body stay in balance?

all the systems work together to maintain homeostasis - regulating temperature, meeting energy needs, maintaining water balance, keeping your balance, responding to stress, and fighting disease

Bone tissue and fat tissue are examples of what?

connective tissue

What forms the outside border of a cell?

cell membrane

Signals from what make skeletal muscles move?

nervous system

What is a chemical signal that controls one or more body processes?


What is an example of a hinge joint?

knee or elbow

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