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w/o O2


w/ O2

Hypovolemic Shock

shock caused by severe blood or fluid loss

Hypovolemic Shock Compensation

Liver and spleen add to the blood volume by disgorging stored RBCs and Plasma

Hypovolemic Shock RAAS

RAAS compensates for hypovolemic shock by stimulating ALDOSTERONE release, which RETAINS NA+ and WATER to increase blood volume.
RAAS > Aldosterone > ↑ Na+ and H20 > ↑ Blood Volume


Low urine output
Can be caused by shock via decreasing perfusion to the kidneys

Prerenal failure

↓ perfusion to kidneys

Septic Shock

↓ Tissue perfusion as a result of severe infection and sepsis.
- Follows infection

Cardiogenic Shock

pump failure
Follows MI

Anaphylactic Schock

Allergic response
More sever than other forms of shock bc it is sudden, rapid systemic VASODILATION.
Follows widespread HYPERSENSITIVITY reaction

Vasogenic Shock

Over-stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
Under-stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
↑ PSNS -- or -- ↓SNS

Shock (Circulatory)

serious, life-threatening medical condition defined as an inadequate perfusion of tissues which is insufficient to meet cellular metabolic needs.

Neurogenic Shock

Neurogenic shock is the rarest form of shock. It is caused by trauma to the spinal cord resulting in the sudden loss of autonomic and motor reflexes below the injury level. Without stimulation by sympathetic nervous system the vessel walls relax uncontrollably, resulting in a sudden decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, leading to vasodilation and hypotension

Vasogenic Shock

shock exists because of the severe reduction in effective circulating blood volume caused by sequestration of blood and other fluids in the vascular system and their withdrawal from the circulating blood. Is the classical shock of traumatic injury, burns, uterine prolapse, extensive surgery.
Teacher: "Example: Spinal nerve impulse causing vasodilation"

Neurogenic Shock

Follows parasympathetic stimulation

Hypovolemic Shock

Follows major burns
Lose lots of volume via burns/bleed out


multi-organ dysfunction


Impaired perfusion is the primary mechanism that causes organ injury.
A spiral that occurs following uncontrolled shock

Burns 1st Degree

Outer layer but not all the way through.
Skin = red.

Burns 2nd Degree

1st layer of skin burnt through
second layer of skin (dermis) partially burnt
Blisters, intense redness, splotchy

Burns 3rd Degree

All layers of skin and cause perm. tissue dmg.
Fat, muscle, and bone may be affected.
Charred black or dry white.
Smoke inhalation may accompany burn: difficult inhale/exhale, and CO poisoning.

Scald Burns

hot grease, boiling water

Contact Burns

cigarette, curling iron

Flame Burns

flammable liquid, gasoline

Electrical Burns

direct contact with high and low voltage current

Chemical Burns

corrosive agent - think acid

Hyperthermic Injury

heat injury - overheating

Heat Stroke

"Most life threatening injury"
caused by prolonged exposure to high temperatures. is is a medical emergency. the body is unable to eliminate the excess heat, and internal body temp. rises to/over 150 degrees

Heat Cramps

painful muscle spasms which usually affect arms, legs, or stomach. Sweating depletes the bodies salt and moisture.

Heat Exhaustion

Still sweats.
Weakness, fatigue, nausea, headache

Heat Rash

prickly heat


extra cells, ↑ number


↑ Size


abnormality of development


Reversible placement of one mature cell type with another cell type.
Not pathologic.

Pathologic Atrophy

is commonly caused by disuse

Malignant Cells

↑ mitotic index (proliferate faster) (bunnies)

Kussmaul Respirations

Deep, rapid respirations
Occurs in metabolic acidosis to ↓ CO2 and thereby reduce carbonic acid.
metabolic acidosis > rapid resp > ↓ CO2 > ↓ carbonic acid

Autosomal Dominant

males = females
no skipped generations
goes to 1/2 of their offspring
50-50 chance

Stages of Cancer

Carcinoma in situ: preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors (e.g. cervical)
Stage 1 - cancer formed
Stage 2 - lymph nodes
Stage 3 - spread to regional structures
Stage 4 - distant metastasis

Carcinoma in situ

Preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors
Ex: Cervical

Stage 1 Cancer

Cancer is formed - what stage?

Stage 2 Cancer

Cancer spread to lymph nodes - what stage?

Stage 3 Cancer

Cancer spread to regional structures - what stage?

Stage 4 Cancer

Cancer shows distant metastasis - what stage?

T Cells

Thymus is the central lymphoid organ for what type of cell?

Prevalence Rate

Proportion of the population affected by a disease at a specific point in time

Incidence Rate

Number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period of time (usually one year)


Exudate: clear, watery


Exudate: clear, watery fluids mixed with blood


Exudate: blood


Exudate: PUS - present during bacterial infection

Nociceptive Pain

impulses arising from skin, muscle, joints, arteries, and viscera in response to chemical, mechanical, or thermal stimuli

Systemic Lupus Erythematous

is an autoimmune disease

Conductive Hearing Loss

occurs when a change in the outer or middle ear impairs sound from being conducted from the outer to inner ear.


Confusion, irritability, depression, headache, seizures


Hypotension, fever, tachycardia


Absent bowel sounds, skeletal muscle weakness, bradycardia


Depression, confusion, irritability, increased reflexes, tetany


Fatigue, weakness, kidney stones, varying degrees of heart block

Brain Abscess

via Complication of mastoiditis


inflammation of the mastoid process or bone

Cryptococcus neoformans

is an Opportunistic Infection
Relates to a ↓ immune system


infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection


CNS manifestation of tuberculosis


inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus


Mosquito-borne Viral infection

Lyme Disease

Tick-borne bacterial infection


Involves psychotic episodes


↑ levels of Euphoria


Unremitting feeling of sadness and despair

Panic Disorder

Intensive autonomic arousal including:
light headedness
generalized sweating
racing heart
Take home: ______ disorder affects body, not just in your head

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

repetitive intrusive thoughts
ex. wash hands over and over


excessive growth hormone caused by pituitary gland

Cushing Disease

Hyper-secretion of adreno-cortico-tropic hormone (ACTH)

Addison Disease

Adrenal insufficiency

Graves Disease

Auto-Immune Hyper-Thyroiditis


Cutaneous edema often associated with Thyroid disease


Tumor of the adrenal medulla

Chronic Osteomyelitis

Distinguishing characteristic of Inflammatory Exudates

Klinefelter Sundrome

Nondisjunction of X chromosome by mother


Mating of persons having common family relations


wheezing in and out, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, tachypnea


passage of fluid and solid particles into the lungs


Inflammatory obstruction of small airways

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Excessive amount of connective tissue in the lung


Abnormal dilation of the bronchi

Pulmonary embolus

often caused by venous stasis and hypercoaguability during bed rest - are risk factors.
Embolus forms in DVT then dislodges and gets stuck in pulmonary system

Pernicious Anemia

a chronic progressive anemia of older adults noun Ex. thought to result from a LACK OF INTRINSIC FACTOR (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)


commonly caused by Epstein bar virus

Sympathetic Nervous System

↑ Cardiac Contractility
↑ Heart Rate

Parasympathetic Nervous System

↓ Cardiac Contractility
↓ Heart Rate

Right Sided Heart Failure

Jugular vein distension, Hepatosplenomegaly, Ascites, Edema, Pulmonary HPT

Cor Pulmonale

or pulmonary heart disease is enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased resistance or high blood pressure in the lungs.


140/90 or Greater

Cardiac Output

Amount of blood pumped out of left ventricle to the aorta.
HR x Stroke Volume = Cardiac Output


Typically presents with DOE (Dyspnea on Exertion)


Main CM is bronchoconstriction, allergies frequently involved with ↑ IgE


↑ IgE


↓ arterial Oxygenation with 5 gms unoxygenated HgB

UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)

Burning on urination, urgency
In elderly may include:
Confusion, poorly localized abdominal discomfort

Prerenal Failure

Ex. Renal Hypoperfusion

Intrarenal Failure

Ex. Acute Tubular Necrosis

Postrenal Failure

Ex. Prostatic Hypertrophy
- Post kidney obstruction, backing things up into kidney


↑ 5 mEq/L
Treatment: glucose and insulin used to treat bc insulin transports glucose into the cell and also carries potassium with it.

Travel Together

Insulin, glucose, potassium
(for the purpose of movement into the cell regarding Hyperkalemia)

Tinea corporis

Ringworm - fungal infection of skin


(lichen planus)
elevated, firm circumscribed area < 1cm


Skin disease characterized by red patches, covered with silver-white scales usually found on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back, but rarely on the face.
A chronic autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells.

Seborrheic keratosis

a skin condition characterized by circumscribed wartlike lesions that can be itchy and covered with a greasy crust

Actinic keratosis

precursor to SCC
erythematous with light scale. can become thick and crusted
see intraepidermal atypia over sun-damaged dermis
Wiki: is a premalignant condition[2] of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin

Psoriasis, Seborrheic and Actinic Keratoses

From SG, line 56B - kinda clueless here.
"elevated, firm, and rough lesion with flat top surface greater than 1 cm."


(flat mole)
Flat circumscribed area
< 1cm


allergic rxn accoc.
Elevated irregular shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, with variable diameters.
Ex. Hives


elevated circumscribed, superficial lesion filled with serous fluid, < 1cm

Herpes zoster

elevated circumscribed, superficial lesion filled with serous fluid, < 1cm

Osmotic Diarrhea

resulting from unhydrolyzed lactose
i.e., lactose intolerance

Reflux Esophagitis

may be defined as inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
Inflamm response to GERD

Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammation develops in crypts of Lieberkuhn in the large intestine

Crohn Disease

Alterations in IgG found in this disorder.
Autoimmune Inflam response.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

systemic: fatigue, fever, weakness

Ankylosing Spondylitis

"synovitis and bone marrow inflammation"
mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine.


↑ uric acid
↑ risk for renal calculi


are produced in plasma cells

Segmental Inhibition

Ex. holding or putting thumb in mouth after hitting it with a hammer

Extradural Hematoma

usually from an arterial bleed

Cerebral Hemorrhage

usually caused by HPT

Acute Rheumatic Fever

develops as a sequel to strep throat

Aortic Semilunar Valve Failure

fails to close completely - some of the ejected blood flows back into left ventricle during diastole > results in ↓ cardiac output

Parathyroid Glands

regulate Calcium

REM Sleep

desynchronized, low-voltage, fast activity that occurs about every 90 minutes

Active Acquired Immunity

produced by individual after either natural exposure to Ag or after immunization


After a person is exposed to most Ag it takes _____ days before an Ab can be detected in the circulation

Pathologic Fracture

Fracture at a site of preexisting bone abnormality, usually by a force that would not normally cause a fracture


Lack of insulin, often due to AI destruciton of the islets of langerhorn


insulin resistance

DM I and II

Both lead to hyperglycemia adn as glucose spills into urine > polyuria

Diabetes Insipidus

lack of ADH > polyuria and hypernatremia

Multiple Sclerosis

Chronic AI disease - not reversible


Bacterial infection spread by air droplet from person to person

Spinal Cord Injury

The physical level of the injury indicates the CMs
Older adults most at risk from minor trauma

Night Terror

sudden apparent arousal in which a chile expresses intense fear or another strong emotion while in a sleep state

Passive Innate Immunity

Passed from mother to fetus
Continues to provide immunity during first months of life


mucous membranes are dry
Poor skin turgor
pulse is weak

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