Hypovolemic Shock Compensation
Liver and spleen add to the blood volume by disgorging stored RBCs and Plasma
Hypovolemic Shock RAAS
RAAS compensates for hypovolemic shock by stimulating ALDOSTERONE release, which RETAINS NA+ and WATER to increase blood volume.
RAAS > Aldosterone > ↑ Na+ and H20 > ↑ Blood Volume
More sever than other forms of shock bc it is sudden, rapid systemic VASODILATION.
Follows widespread HYPERSENSITIVITY reaction
Over-stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
Under-stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
↑ PSNS -- or -- ↓SNS
serious, life-threatening medical condition defined as an inadequate perfusion of tissues which is insufficient to meet cellular metabolic needs.
Neurogenic shock is the rarest form of shock. It is caused by trauma to the spinal cord resulting in the sudden loss of autonomic and motor reflexes below the injury level. Without stimulation by sympathetic nervous system the vessel walls relax uncontrollably, resulting in a sudden decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, leading to vasodilation and hypotension
shock exists because of the severe reduction in effective circulating blood volume caused by sequestration of blood and other fluids in the vascular system and their withdrawal from the circulating blood. Is the classical shock of traumatic injury, burns, uterine prolapse, extensive surgery.
Teacher: "Example: Spinal nerve impulse causing vasodilation"
Impaired perfusion is the primary mechanism that causes organ injury.
A spiral that occurs following uncontrolled shock
Burns 2nd Degree
1st layer of skin burnt through
second layer of skin (dermis) partially burnt
Blisters, intense redness, splotchy
Burns 3rd Degree
All layers of skin and cause perm. tissue dmg.
Fat, muscle, and bone may be affected.
Charred black or dry white.
Smoke inhalation may accompany burn: difficult inhale/exhale, and CO poisoning.
"Most life threatening injury"
caused by prolonged exposure to high temperatures. is is a medical emergency. the body is unable to eliminate the excess heat, and internal body temp. rises to/over 150 degrees
painful muscle spasms which usually affect arms, legs, or stomach. Sweating depletes the bodies salt and moisture.
Deep, rapid respirations
Occurs in metabolic acidosis to ↓ CO2 and thereby reduce carbonic acid.
metabolic acidosis > rapid resp > ↓ CO2 > ↓ carbonic acid
males = females
no skipped generations
goes to 1/2 of their offspring
Stages of Cancer
Carcinoma in situ: preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors (e.g. cervical)
Stage 1 - cancer formed
Stage 2 - lymph nodes
Stage 3 - spread to regional structures
Stage 4 - distant metastasis
Number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period of time (usually one year)
impulses arising from skin, muscle, joints, arteries, and viscera in response to chemical, mechanical, or thermal stimuli
Conductive Hearing Loss
occurs when a change in the outer or middle ear impairs sound from being conducted from the outer to inner ear.
infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection
Intensive autonomic arousal including:
Take home: ______ disorder affects body, not just in your head
often caused by venous stasis and hypercoaguability during bed rest - are risk factors.
Embolus forms in DVT then dislodges and gets stuck in pulmonary system
a chronic progressive anemia of older adults noun Ex. thought to result from a LACK OF INTRINSIC FACTOR (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)
Right Sided Heart Failure
Jugular vein distension, Hepatosplenomegaly, Ascites, Edema, Pulmonary HPT
or pulmonary heart disease is enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased resistance or high blood pressure in the lungs.
Amount of blood pumped out of left ventricle to the aorta.
HR x Stroke Volume = Cardiac Output
UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
Burning on urination, urgency
In elderly may include:
Confusion, poorly localized abdominal discomfort
Ex. Prostatic Hypertrophy
- Post kidney obstruction, backing things up into kidney
↑ 5 mEq/L
Treatment: glucose and insulin used to treat bc insulin transports glucose into the cell and also carries potassium with it.
Insulin, glucose, potassium
(for the purpose of movement into the cell regarding Hyperkalemia)
Skin disease characterized by red patches, covered with silver-white scales usually found on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back, but rarely on the face.
A chronic autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells.
a skin condition characterized by circumscribed wartlike lesions that can be itchy and covered with a greasy crust
precursor to SCC
erythematous with light scale. can become thick and crusted
see intraepidermal atypia over sun-damaged dermis
Wiki: is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin
Psoriasis, Seborrheic and Actinic Keratoses
From SG, line 56B - kinda clueless here.
"elevated, firm, and rough lesion with flat top surface greater than 1 cm."
allergic rxn accoc.
Elevated irregular shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, with variable diameters.
may be defined as inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
Inflamm response to GERD
"synovitis and bone marrow inflammation"
mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine.
Aortic Semilunar Valve Failure
fails to close completely - some of the ejected blood flows back into left ventricle during diastole > results in ↓ cardiac output
Active Acquired Immunity
produced by individual after either natural exposure to Ag or after immunization
After a person is exposed to most Ag it takes _____ days before an Ab can be detected in the circulation
Fracture at a site of preexisting bone abnormality, usually by a force that would not normally cause a fracture
Spinal Cord Injury
The physical level of the injury indicates the CMs
Older adults most at risk from minor trauma
sudden apparent arousal in which a chile expresses intense fear or another strong emotion while in a sleep state
Passive Innate Immunity
Passed from mother to fetus
Continues to provide immunity during first months of life