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149 terms

Medterm Chapter 10

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meninges
three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
plexus
a large, interlacing network of nerves
dendrite
branching fiber that is first part of a neuron to receive a nervous impulse
myelin sheath
protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
oligodendroglia
glial cell that produces myelin
cerebral cortex
outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter
dura mater
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting brain and spinal cord
synapse
space, juncture through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from neuron to neuron
medulla oblangata
above spinal cord, controls breathing, heartbeat and size of blood vessels. nerve fibers cross
hypothalamus
beneath thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature and pituitary gland secretions
sensory nerve
carries messages toward the brain from receptors
parenchymal cell
essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron
pia mater
innermost meningeal membrane
gyri
elevations in cerebral cortex
neurotransmitter
acetylcholine is an example of this chemical released into a synapse
subarachnoid space
contains cerebrospinal fluid
intrathecal
pertaining to inside spinal cord
glioma
cancer starting in brain/spine
myelogram
x-ray of the spinal cord
subdural hematoma
brain injury where blood gathers between dura and arachnoid
meningioma
tumor of meninges
paresthesias
abnormality of sensation
bradykinesia
slow movement
hyperesthesia
increased nervous sensation
nacrolepsy
seizure of sleep
syncope
fainting
causalgia
burning pain
apraxia
no coordination
hemiparesis
slight paralysis in half of the body
multiple sclerosis
destruction of myelin sheath; replacement by plaques of hard scar tissue
epilepsy
sudden, transient disturbances of brian function marked by seizures
myasthenia gravis
loss of muscle strength; breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter
parkinson disease
Degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness (mask-like facial expression); dopamine is deficient in the brain.
Alzheimer disease
Deterioration of mental capacity (dementia) beginning in middle age; cerebral cortex atrophy, microscopic neurofibrillary tangles
bell palsy
unilateral facial paralysis
pyogenic meningitis
bacterial inflammation of meninges and subarachnoid Cerebral SPinal Fluid
tourette syndrome
neurological disorder marked by involuntary, spasmodic, twitching, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words
shingles
viral disease affecting peripheral nerves
cerebral embolus
a clot blocks an artery leading to the brain and blocks blood flow
aura
peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptoms
palliative
relieving but not curing
transient ischemic attack
interruption of blood supply to the cerebrum
occlusion
blockage
dopamine
neurotransmitter
glioblastoma multiforme
malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells
absence seizure
Minor form of epileptic seizure
tonic-clonic seizure
Major convulsive epileptic seizure.
acetycholine
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of the nerve cells
anencephaly
condition of absence of a brain
apraxia
movements and behavior are not purposeful
astrocyte
type of glial cell
ataxia
lack of muscle coordination
bradykinesia
slow movement
cerebellum
posterior part of the brain; responsible for maintaining balance
cerebrum
largest part of the brain
comatose
state of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused
glioma
malignant brain tumor
gyri
elevations on the surface of the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
part of the brain that controls the secretions of the pituitary gland
leptomeningitis
benign tumor of the membranes around the brain
meningitis
inflammation of membranes around the brain
myelinsheath
fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the axon of a nerve cell
neurasthenia
nervous exhaustion; lack of nerve strength
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower part of the body
stroma
the connective and framework tissue of any organ
syncopal
pertaining to fainting
synapse
the space through which a nerve impulse passes from one nerve cell to another
aura
peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms
cerebral angiography
X-ray record of blood vessels within the brain
cerebral hemorrhage
breakage of a blood vessel within the brain
cerebral palsy
paralysis and loss of muscular coordination caused by brain damage in the perinatal period
dementia
mental decline and deterioration
dopamine
type of neurotransmitter (deficient in Parkinson's disease)
embolus
a floating clot; mass of material suddenly blocking a blood vessel
gait
manner of walking
glioblastoma multiforme
malignant brain tumor
hydrocephalus
collection of fluid in the ventricles of the brain
Multiple Sclerosis
demyelination of tissue around the axons of CNS neurons
myasthenia gravis
relapsing weakness of skeletal muscles (no muscle strength); autoimmune condition
palliative
relieving symptoms, but not curing
Parkinson Disease
degeneration of nerves in the brain; occuring in later life and leading to tremors, bradykinesia
Spina bifida
congenital defect of spinal column with herniation of the spinal cord and meninges
tonic-clonic
major compulsive epileptic seizure
Tourette Syndrome
involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements; uncontrollable utterances
transient ischemia attack
mini-stroke
neurorrhapy
nerve suture
motor nerve
carries messages away from CNS to muscles and organs
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter - chemical released at ends of some nerve cells
meningioma
tumor of meninges
hyperkinesis
excessive movement
paresis
slight paralysis
demyelination
myelin sheath of neurons is damaged
paresthesia
abnormal sensation
intrathecal
within the meninges
cuada equina
tail end of the spinal cord
glial
pertaining to supportive cells of the nervous system
Thalamus
a part of the brain that serves as a relay station for impulses
dysphasia
difficult speech
anesthesia
condition of insensitivty to pain
hemiparesis
paralysis of right or left side of the body
radiculitis
inflammation of a spinal nerve root
neuropathy
disease of a nerve
vagotomy
incision of the vagus nerve
ataxia
lack of muscle coordination
dysesthesia
condition of painful nervous sensations
gioblastoma
tumor of immature brain cells (glia)
electroencephalogram
electrical record of the brain
nerve
macroscopic structure consisting of axons and dendrites in bundle-like strands
pons
part of the brain meaning bridge
aneurysm
abnormal widening of a blood vessel
MRI
Magnetic and radiowaves used to create images
Glial tissue of the brain
What is the brain parencyma?
cerebellar
pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord and is located within the ventricles of the brain
cerebral cortex
the outer region (gray matter) of the cerebrum
subdural hematoma
collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)
epidural hematoma
collection of blood above the dura mater
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
encephalopathy
any disease of the brain
glial cells
supportive and connective cells of the nervous system (important in formation of myelin, transport of materials to neurons, and maintenance of cellular environment)
leptomeningitis
inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid membrane
meningeal
pertaining to the meninges
meningomyelocele
hernia of the meninges and spinal cord
myelogram
record / x-ray of spinal cord
myoneural
pertaining to muscle and nerve
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
polyneuritis
inflammation of many spinal nerves, causing paralysis, pain, wasting of muscles. Gullain-Barre syndrome is an example
cerebellopontine
pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons
radiculopathy
disease of the spinal nerve roots
thalamic
pertaining to the thalamus
intrathecal injection
placement of substances into the subarachnoid space
vagal
pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial ) nerve
analgesia
condition of no pain, usually accompanied by sedation w/o loss of consicousness
hypalgesia
diminished sensation to pain
neuralgia
nerve pain
cephalgia
headache (head pain)
causalgia
burning sensation of pain (in the skin), usually follwoing injury to sensory fibers of a peripheral nerve.
comatose
In a state of coma (profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused; may be due to trauma, disease, or action of ingested toxic substance)
anesthesia
condition of no nervous sensation
hyperesthesia
excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
akinetic
pertaining to w/o movement
nacrolepsy
sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep (seizure of sleep)
dyslexia
disorder of reading, writing, or learning (despite the ability to see and recognize letters)
aphasia
condition of inability to speak
hemiplegia
paralysis in half of the body
paraplegia
paralysis in the lower portion of the body
quadriplegia
paralysis of all 4 limbs of the body